year 16, Issue 5 (September - October 2022)                   Iran J Med Microbiol 2022, 16(5): 399-404 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Taghdisi-Kashani A, Gholamshahi A, Fathizadeh H, Azadchehr M, Rahimi M, Forouzandeh H et al . Antimicrobial Activity of Children's Toothpaste on the Bacteria Causing Dental Caries. Iran J Med Microbiol 2022; 16 (5) :399-404
1- Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
2- Student Research Committee, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran
3- Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
4- Student Research Committee of Kashan of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
5- Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran ,
Abstract:   (640 Views)

Background and Aim: Early childhood caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in children, affecting both oral and general health. Oral microorganisms are the most important causative agents associated with dental caries in children. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of common Iranian and non-Iranian children's toothpaste on the growth of four standard bacteria strains, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Enterococcus faecalis.
Materials and Methods: In this study, six types of the most common Iranian and non-Iranian children toothpaste produced by different companies were prepared. Different concentrations of toothpaste were prepared according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Iranian and non-Iranian children's toothpaste were measured by the microbroth dilution method at ten different concentrations.
Results: For the S. mutans bacteria, the lowest MIC was found in Misswake, Vi-One, and 2080 toothpaste. In the case of S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus bacteria, the lowest MIC was related to Frice toothpaste, and for E. faecalis bacteria, the lowest MICs were found for Misswake and 2080 toothpaste. Mann-Whitney U test also revealed that the inhibitory and bactericidal activities of Iranian children's toothpaste on the studied bacteria were not significantly different from those of non-Iranian children's toothpaste.
Conclusion: In general, the antimicrobial activity of Iranian children's toothpaste was higher than non-that of Iranian samples. In addition, the MIC of 2080 and Frice toothpaste in the four bacteria examined was lower than in other used toothpaste. To prevent early tooth decay in children use of these two kinds of toothpaste is recommended.

Full-Text [PDF 511 kb]   (202 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (163 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Medical Bacteriology
Received: 2021/12/18 | Accepted: 2022/05/31 | ePublished: 2022/08/8

1. Zhu H, Ying X, Zhu F, Huang C, Yu Y. Early childhood caries and related risk factors: A cross‐sectional study of children in Zhejiang Province, China. Int J Dent Hyg. 2020;18(4):352-61. [DOI:10.1111/idh.12454] [PMID]
2. Horax S, Malik A, Balqis A, Wulansari DP. Role of Green Tea Catechins Toothpaste on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and Bone Morphogenetic-2 (BMP-2) on Early Childhood Caries. Syst Rev Pharm. 2020;11(12).
3. Kubota Y, San Pech N, Durward C, Ogawa H. Association between early childhood caries and maternal factors among 18-to 36-month-old children in a rural area of Cambodia. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2020;18(1):973-80. [DOI:10.1016/j.pdj.2019.11.003]
4. Soleymani N, Sattari M, Sepehriseresht S, Daneshmandi S. Evaluation of reciprocal pharmaceutical effects and antibacterial activity of Bunium persicum essential oil against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2010;4(1):26-34.
5. Moghtader M, Salari H, Farahmand A. Anti-bacterial effects of the essential oil of Teucrium polium L. on human pathogenic bacteria. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2013;7(2):1-7.
6. Çolak H, Dülgergil ÇT, Dalli M, Hamidi MM. Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013;4(1):29. [DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.107257] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Chandhru TP, Anusha VR, Peedikayil FC, Ahmed MBG, Kottayi S, Narasimhan D. Evaluation of antifungal activity of six children's toothpaste on isolated from early childhood caries patients. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2020;38(2):152. [DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_3_20] [PMID]
8. Fazeli H, Moslehi Z, Irajian G, Salehi M. Determination of Drug resistance patterns and detection of bla-VIM gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosastrains Isolated from burned patients in the Emam Mosa Kazem hospital, Esfahan, Iran (2008-9). Iran J Med Microbiol. 2010;3(4):1-8.
9. Ferdpus Mitaa J, Ahmed T. Microbiological study of oral cavity of patients seeking dental treatments in Dhaka Metropolis, Bangladesh. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2019;13(4):284-93. [DOI:10.30699/ijmm.13.4.284]
10. Darvishi M, Forootan M, Nazer MR, Karimi E, Noori M. Nosocomial Infections, Challenges and Threats: A Review Article. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2020;14(2):162-81. [DOI:10.30699/ijmm.14.2.162]
11. Bahador A, Saghii H, Ataee R, Esmaeili D. The Study of inhibition effects Satureja khuzestaniea essence against gene expression bap acinetobacter baumannii with real time PCR technique. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2015;9(1):42-9.
12. Monteiro MF, Tonelli H, Reis AA, Casati MZ, Silvério KG, Nociti Junior FH, et al. Triclosan toothpaste as an adjunct therapy to plaque control in children from periodontitis families: a crossover clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 2020;24(4):1421-30. [DOI:10.1007/s00784-019-03121-6] [PMID]
13. Shrestha P, Zhang Y, Chen W-J, Wong T-Y. Triclosan: Antimicrobial mechanisms, antibiotics interactions, clinical applications, and human health. J Environ Sci Health C. 2020;38(3):245-68. [DOI:10.1080/26896583.2020.1809286] [PMID]
14. Chandhru TP, Anusha VR, Peedikayil FC, Ahmed MBG, Kottayi S, Narasimhan D. Evaluation of antifungal activity of six children's toothpaste on Candida albicans isolated from early childhood caries patients. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2020;38(2):152. [DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_3_20] [PMID]
15. Shahidi Z, Davani ST, Noori F, Tabatabaei MH, Sodeif F, Etemadi A, et al. Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Activity of Toothpastes and Mouthwashes Available in the Iranian Market. Front dent. 2021. [DOI:10.18502/fid.v18i7.5650] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Sadeghi M, Assar S. An in vitro antimicrobial activity of ten Iranian-made toothpastes. J Dent Res. 2009;6(2):87.
17. Carvalho FG, Negrini TDC, Sacramento LVS, Hebling J, Spolidorio DMP, Duque C. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of natural infant fluoride-free toothpastes on oral microorganisms. J Dent Child (Chic). 2011;78(1):3-8.
18. Bijle MNA, Ekambaram M, Lo E, Yiu CKY. The combined antimicrobial effect of arginine and fluoride toothpaste. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):1-10. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-019-44612-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Prasanth M. Antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses: an in vitro study. J Dent Res. 2011;8(2):85.
20. Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS. Study Guide for Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology-E-Book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2016.
21. Moradian H, Bazargani A, Rafiee A, Nazarialam A. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial activity of aqueous decoction of Coriandrum sativum, and Dentol Drop with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans. Iran J Microbiol. 2013;5(3):239.
22. Patel JB, Cockerill FR, Bradford PA. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-fifth informational supplement. 2015.
23. Ghapanchi J, Kamali F, Moattari A, Poorshahidi S, Shahin E, Rezazadeh F, et al. In vitro comparison of cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of 16 commercial toothpastes. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7(3):39.
24. Kooshki F, Tabatabaei FS, Tajik S, Aayan A. The comparison of antimicrobial effects of herbal and chemical agents on toothpaste: An experimental study. J Dent Res. 2018;15(4):289.
25. Mofid R, Fathieh AR, Zamiri M, Eshghi B. Effect of two iranian toothpastes (nasim & pooneh) with and FDA-approved toothpaste (crest regular) to reduce gingivitis and plaque. 2005.
26. Rashidian A, Tajedin M, Pourjamshid T. Comparison of salivary fluoride levels following use of Bath and Colgate dentifrices in children. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2014;11(1). [DOI:10.29252/ijpd.11.1.47]
27. Wiegand A, Buchalla W, Attin T. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials-fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation. Dent Mater. 2007;23(3):343-62. [DOI:10.1016/] [PMID]
28. Shamim T. Bibliometric analysis of the dental science articles published in the Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences (IJMS) from 2002 to 2015 over a 14-Year period. Iran J Med Sci. 2017; 42(1):106.
29. Wong MCM, Clarkson J, Glenny AM, Lo ECM, Marinho VCC, Tsang BWK, et al. Cochrane reviews on the benefits/risks of fluoride toothpastes. J Dent Res. 2011;90(5):573-9. [DOI:10.1177/0022034510393346] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc