year 11, Issue 5 (November - December 2017)                   Iran J Med Microbiol 2017, 11(5): 83-89 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Javid Khojasteh V, Mojtahedi A, Hosseini S, Joukar F. Relative Frequency of Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in Guilan Province, Iran. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2017; 11 (5) :83-89
1- Shahid Beheshti Nursing and Midwifery School of Rasht, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran ,
2- Rasht guilan university
3- Head of Laboratory of Vice-chancellor for health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
4- Department of Nursing, Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
Abstract:   (7373 Views)

Background and Aims: Influenza A/H1N1, the cause of an acute respiratory illness, undergoes genetic changes every few years, resulting in a new subtype with new surface antigenic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of influenza A/H1N1 virus among specimens collected from patients with influenza symptoms who were admitted to educational and training hospitals in Guilan province, Iran.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on upper respiratory tract discharges of patients with influenza symptoms in the counties of Guilan province, using Real-Time PCR technique in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center of Gilan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The Fishers Exact Test or chi-square χ)2( was used for data analysis.
Results: From 108 patients with influenza symptoms, 58 (53/7%) were female. The age range of patients was between 1-78 years old. The results showed that only 4 (3/7%) patients were positive for A/H1N1virus (3 male and 1 female). This included a male who was admitted with pneumonia and expired later.  
Conclusions: Influenza virus A/H1N1 is a mutant virus, the genetic evolution in which is constantly occurring and new subtypes can, therefore, re-infect the community. It is thus imperative that vaccination is done to prevent against novel strains of influenza.

Full-Text [PDF 812 kb]   (2791 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Medical Virology
Received: 2016/04/26 | Accepted: 2017/09/24 | ePublished: 2018/01/3

1. 1- Mojtahedi A, Esmaili GH, Khajehjahromi S. Influenza type A for medical sciences disciplines. Guilan University of Medical Sciences Publishing, 2011; 2-3.
2. 2- Shorman M, Moorman JP. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of influenza. South Med J. 2003;96(8):737-9. [DOI] [PubMed]
3. 3- Louie JK, Acosta M, Winter K. Factors associated with death of hospitalization due to pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection in California. JAMA. 2009;302(17):1896-902. [DOI] [PubMed]
4. 4- Shinde V, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM. Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005-2009. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2616-25. [DOI] [PubMed]
5. 5- Influenza A (H1N1)-update 12. Geneva: world Health Organization, 2009. (Accessed May 26, 2009; 03-05a.
6. 6- World Health Organization. Influenza (Seasonal). April 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
7. 7- Jain R and Goldman RD. Novel influenza A (H1N1): clinical presentation, diagnosis and management. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:791-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
8. 8- World Health Organization (2010) Influenza A (H1N1). Accessed April 13, 2009.
9. 9- Roxas M, Jurenka J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2007;12(1):25-48. [PubMed]
10. 10- Christman MC, Kedwaii A, Xu J, Donis RO,Lu G. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus revisited:an evolutionary retrospective. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11(5):803-11. [DOI] [PubMed]
11. 11- Beigel JH. Influenza. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(9):2660-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
12. 12- Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008-09 Influenza prevention and control recommendations: influenza vaccination coverage levels. Accessed May 26, 2009.
13. 13- Olsen CW. The emergence of novel swine influenza viruses in North America. Virus Res. 2002;85:199-219. [DOI]
14. 14- Vincent Al, Ma W, Lager KM, Janke BH, Richt JA. Swine influenza viruses: a north American perspective. Adv Viruse Res. 2008;72:127-54. [DOI]
15. 15- Dawood FS, Jain S. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), virus in humans. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(25):2605-15. [DOI] [PubMed]
16. 16- Reuters. Saudi Arabia confirms first H1N1 flu case. 2009 (available from:http/www ruters com/article/latest crisis/idusl 31005359 (accessed 10.06.10).
17. 17- Almazroa MA, Mamish ZA, Alwadey AM. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Saudi Arabia: description of the first one hundred cases. Ann Saudi Med. 2010;30:11-4. [DOI]
18. 18- Al Tawfiq JA, Abed M, Saadeh BM, Ghandour J, Shaltaf M, Babiker MM. Pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1) in hospitalized patients in a Saudi Arabian hospital: epidemiology and clinical comparison with H1N1-negative patients. J Infect Public Health. 2011;4(5-6):228-34. [DOI] [PubMed]
19. 19- Yang TH, Chu D, Hu BS, Hung YT, Chou P. Early experience of the pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 epidemic in Taiwan. J Chin Med Assoc 2011;74(7):298-304. [DOI] [PubMed]
20. 20- Chemalay RF, Vigil KJ, Saad M, Vilar-Compte D, Cornejo-Juarez P,Perez-Jimenez C. A multicenter study of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in Patients with solid tumors in 3 countries. American Cancer Society. 2012;118(18):4627-33.
21. 21- Larussa P. Pandemic novel 2009 H1N1influenza: what have we learned? Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 32 (4):393-9. [DOI] [PubMed]
22. 22- Haghshenas MR, Asghari A, Babamahmoodi F, Sadegh Rezai M, Tabrizee A, Nandoost S. Prevalence of influenza A /H1N1virus in north of Iran. J Mazand Univ Med Sci. 2012;22(92):50-7.
23. 23- Dowdle WR, Millar JD, Schonberger LB, Ennis FA, LaMontagne JR. Influenza immunization policies and practices in Japan. J Infect Dis. 1980;14(2):258-64. [DOI]
24. 24- World Health Organization. Influenza (Seasonal). April 2009. Retrieved. 2010-02-13.
25. 25- Crawford PC, Dubovi EJ, Castleman WL, Stephenson I, Gibbs EP, Chen L. Transmission of equine influenza virus todogs. Science. 2005;310(5747):482-5. [DOI] [PubMed]
26. 26- Fouchier RA, Munster V, Wallensten A, Bestebroer TM, Herfst S, Smith D. Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16)obtained from black-headed gulls. J Virol. 2005;79(5):2814-22. [DOI] [PubMed]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc