year 17, Issue 1 (January - February 2023)                   Iran J Med Microbiol 2023, 17(1): 22-38 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Igiri B E, Okoduwa S I R, Munirat S A, Otu-Bassey I B, Bashir A, Onyiyioza O M, et al . Diversity in Enteric Fever Diagnostic Protocols and Recommendation for Composite Reference Standard. Iran J Med Microbiol 2023; 17 (1) :22-38
1- Directorate of Research and Development, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
2- Directorate of Research and Development, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria ,
3- Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
4- Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
5- Industrial and Environmental Pollution Department, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Abstract:   (1947 Views)

Background and Aim: Enteric fever causes serious health problem and brings about significant death and ill health globally because of the absence of decisive diagnostic techniques. The ability of frequently used assay to authenticate the absence of enteric fever is debatable. This research study aimed to appraise the specificity and sensitivity of typhoid diagnosis for establishing highly accurate diagnostic techniques and to recommend appropriate standardized composite reference.
Materials and Methods: Published articles indexed in Google scholar, MEDLINE and PubMed were reviewed for hospital-based findings. Independent sample t-test was utilized to ascertain differences in mean percentage specificity and sensitivity.
Results: From the 432 articles identified in this study, 53 were used in the analysis. The result outcome reveals that, Widal techniques show moderate accuracy with percentage average specificity (55%), sensitivity (53.8%), positive predictive value of 57.8% and negative predictive value of 55.6% in comparison to 28%, 29.4%,  29.5%, and 27.8% of Typhidot  respectively. 34.4% of the studies used prospective study design. The results revealed a statistically significant association in the sensitivity between Typhidot and Widal at p<0.05. The finding also presented emerging enteric fever diagnostic tests such as protein biomarkers, metabolite biomarkers, nucleic acid biomarkers and genomics. Antigens that were regularly assayed are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and hemolysin E (HlyE).  Highest specificity of 96% and sensitivity of 96% was obtained in anti-LPS IgA.
Conclusion: Based on the result outcome, it is recommended that, blood culture and Widal techniques having sensitivity of 60% and 53.8% respectively be used as a harmonized composite reference standard for enteric fever diagnosis to improve prevalence appraisals.

Full-Text [PDF 758 kb]   (499 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (549 Views)  
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Medical Bacteriology
Received: 2022/01/11 | Accepted: 2022/06/9 | ePublished: 2023/01/20

1. Kumar S, Balakrishna K, Singh GP, Batra HV. Rapid detection of Salmonella typhi in foods by combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;21(5):625-8. [DOI:10.1007/s11274-004-3553-x]
2. Alba S, Bakker MI, Hatta M, Scheelbeek PFD, Dwiyanti R, Usman R, et al. Risk factors of typhoid infection in the Indonesian archipelago. PloS one. 2016;11(6):e0155286. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155286] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Wijedoru L, Mallett S, Parry CM. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017(5). [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD008892.pub2] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Stanaway JD, Reiner RC, Blacker BF, Goldberg EM, Khalil IA, Troeger CE, et al. The global burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19(4):369-81. [DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30685-6] [PMID]
5. Buckle GC, Walker CL, Black RE. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010. J Glob Health. 2012;2(1):010401. [DOI:10.7189/jogh.01.010401] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Mogasale V, Maskery B, Ochiai RL, Lee JS, Mogasale VV, Ramani E, et al. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment. Lancet Glob Health. 2014;2(10):e570-e80. [DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70301-8] [PMID]
7. Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(5):346-53.
8. Crump JA, Ram PK, Gupta SK, Miller MA, Mintz ED. Part I. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984-2005. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136(4):436-48. [DOI:10.1017/S0950268807009338] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Britto C, Pollard AJ, Voysey M, Blohmke CJ. An Appraisal of the Clinical Features of Pediatric Enteric Fever: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Age-Stratified Disease Occurrence. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(11):1604-11. [DOI:10.1093/cid/cix229] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Antillón M, Warren JL, Crawford FW, Weinberger DM, Kürüm E, Pak GD, et al. The burden of typhoid fever in low-and middle-income countries: a meta-regression approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(2):e0005376. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005376] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Dutta S, Das S, Mitra U, Jain P, Roy I, Ganguly SS, et al. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles and molecular subtypes of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A blood isolates from Kolkata, India during 2009-2013. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e101347. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101347] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Haque A, Ahmed J, Qureshi Javed A. Early Detection of Typhoid by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Ann Saudi Med. 1999;19(4):337-40. [DOI:10.5144/0256-4947.1999.337] [PMID]
13. Wasihun AG, Wlekidan LN, Gebremariam SA, Welderufael AL, Muthupandian S, Haile TD, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Typhoid Fever and Associated Prevailing Drug Resistance in Northern Ethiopia. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;35:96-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.014] [PMID]
14. Igiri BE, Pc I, Gc E, Jimoh O, Ma S, Go I. Diagnostic investigations and prevalence of enteric fever in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika-Zaria. Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;3(1):1-5. [DOI:10.15761/CMID.1000131]
15. Vallenas C, Hernandez H, Kay B, Black R, Gotuzzo E. Efficacy of bone marrow, blood, stool and duodenal contents cultures for bacteriologic confirmation of typhoid fever in children. J Pediatr Infect Dis. 1985;4(5):496-8. [DOI:10.1097/00006454-198509000-00011] [PMID]
16. World Health Organisation W. The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of typhoid Fever 2003 [
17. Mogasale V, Ramani E, Mogasale VV, Park J. What proportion of Salmonella Typhi cases are detected by blood culture? A systematic literature review. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2016;15(1):32. [DOI:10.1186/s12941-016-0147-z] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Storey HL, Huang Y, Crudder C, Golden A, de los Santos T, Hawkins K. A meta-analysis of typhoid diagnostic accuracy studies: a recommendation to adopt a standardized composite reference. PloS one. 2015;10(11):e0142364. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142364] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Zaki SA, Karande S. Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever: a review. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5(05):324-37. [DOI:10.3855/jidc.1405] [PMID]
20. Ugochukwu AI, Amu OC, Nzegwu MA. Ileal perforation due to typhoid fever - Review of operative management and outcome in an urban centre in Nigeria. Int J Surg. 2013;11(3):218-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.01.014] [PMID]
21. Goay YX, Chin KL, Tan CLL, Yeoh CY, Ja'afar JaN, Zaidah AR, et al. Identification of Five Novel Salmonella Typhi-Specific Genes as Markers for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using Single-Gene Target PCR Assays. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:8905675. [DOI:10.1155/2016/8905675] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Contini S. Typhoid intestinal perforation in developing countries: Still unavoidable deaths? World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23(11):1925-31. [DOI:10.3748/wjg.v23.i11.1925] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Parry CM, Wijedoru L, Arjyal A, Baker S. The utility of diagnostic tests for enteric fever in endemic locations. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9(6):711-25. [DOI:10.1586/eri.11.47] [PMID]
24. Andrews JR, Ryan ET. Diagnostics for invasive Salmonella infections: Current challenges and future directions. Vaccine. 2015;33:C8-C15. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.030] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Maude RR, de Jong HK, Wijedoru L, Fukushima M, Ghose A, Samad R, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(10):1376-84. [DOI:10.1111/tmi.12559] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Darton TC, Jones C, Dongol S, Voysey M, Blohmke CJ, Shrestha R, et al. Assessment and Translation of the Antibody-in-Lymphocyte Supernatant (ALS) Assay to Improve the Diagnosis of Enteric Fever in Two Controlled Human Infection Models and an Endemic Area of Nepal. Front Microbiol. 2017;8. [DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2017.02031] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Olopoenia LA, King AL. Widal agglutination test −100 years later: still plagued by controversy. Postgrad Med J. 2000;76(892):80. [DOI:10.1136/pmj.76.892.80] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Kantele A, Pakkanen SH, Karttunen R, Kantele JM. Head-to-head comparison of humoral immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide and Salmonella Typhi Ty21a typhoid vaccines-a randomized trial. PloS One. 2013;8(4):e60583. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060583] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Baker S, Favorov M, Dougan G. Searching for the elusive typhoid diagnostic. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10(1):45. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-45] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Charles Richelle C, Liang L, Khanam F, Sayeed MA, Hung C, Leung Daniel T, et al. Immunoproteomic Analysis of Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant in Patients with Typhoid Fever in Bangladesh. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(3):280-5. [DOI:10.1128/CVI.00661-13] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Darton TC, Blohmke CJ, Giannoulatou E, Waddington CS, Jones C, Sturges P, et al. Rapidly escalating hepcidin and associated serum iron starvation are features of the acute response to typhoid infection in humans. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(9):e0004029. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004029] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Park KS, Chung HJ, Khanam F, Lee H, Rashu R, Bhuiyan MT, et al. A magneto-DNA nanoparticle system for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of enteric fever. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):32878. [DOI:10.1038/srep32878] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Blohmke CJ, Darton TC, Jones C, Suarez NM, Waddington CS, Angus B, et al. Interferon-driven alterations of the host's amino acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. J Exp Med. 2016;213(6):1061-77. [DOI:10.1084/jem.20151025] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Sharma T, Bhatnagar S, Tiwari A. Typhoid Diagnostics: Looking Beneath the Surface. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2018;12(9). [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2018/36358.12048]
35. Whiting PF, Rutjes AWS, Westwood ME, Mallett S. A systematic review classifies sources of bias and variation in diagnostic test accuracy studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013;66(10):1093-104. [DOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.05.014] [PMID]
36. Alonzo TA, Pepe MS. Using a combination of reference tests to assess the accuracy of a new diagnostic test. Stat Med. 1999;18(22):2987-3003.<2987::AID-SIM205>3.0.CO;2-B [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19991130)18:223.0.CO;2-B]
37. Levine MM, Grados O, Gilman RH, Woodward WE, Solis-Plaza R, Waldman W. Diagnostic value of the Widal test in areas endemic for typhoid fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1978;27(4):795-800. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.1978.27.795] [PMID]
38. Rodrigues C. The Widal test--more than 100 years old: abused but still used. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:7-8.
39. World Health O. Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper, March 2018 - Recommendations. Vaccine. 2019;37(2):214-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.022] [PMID]
40. Lim P-L, Tam Frankie CH, Cheong Y-M, Jegathesan M. One-Step 2-Minute Test To Detect Typhoid-Specific Antibodies Based on Particle Separation in Tubes. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36(8). [DOI:10.1128/JCM.36.8.2271-2278.1998] [PMID] [PMCID]
41. Tam FCH, Wang M, Dong B, Leung DTM, Ma CH, Lim PL. New rapid test for paratyphoid a fever: usefulness, cross-detection, and solution. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;62(2):142-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2008.07.002] [PMID]
42. Choo KE, Davis TME, Ismail A, Tuan Ibrahim TA, Ghazali WNW. Rapid and reliable serological diagnosis of enteric fever: comparative sensitivity and specificity of Typhidot and Typhidot-M tests in febrile Malaysian children. Acta Trop. 1999;72(2):175-83. [DOI:10.1016/S0001-706X(98)00095-3] [PMID]
43. Bhutta ZA, Mansurali N. Rapid serologic diagnosis of pediatric typhoid fever in an endemic area: a prospective comparative evaluation of two dot-enzyme immunoassays and the Widal test. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(4):654-7. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.1999.61.654] [PMID]
44. Liang L, Juarez S, Nga TVT, Dunstan S, Nakajima-Sasaki R, Davies DH, et al. Immune profiling with a Salmonella Typhi antigen microarray identifies new diagnostic biomarkers of human typhoid. Sci Rep. 2013;3(1):1043. [DOI:10.1038/srep01043] [PMID] [PMCID]
45. Meyer GJ, Shaffer TW, Erdberg P, Horn SL. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults. J Pers Assess. 2015;97(4):330-47. [DOI:10.1080/00223891.2014.961603] [PMID]
46. Organization WH. Background Document: The Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Typhoid Fever; World Health Organization Department of Vaccines and Biologicals. Geneva, Switzerland; 2003.
47. Wain J, Bay Phan Van B, Vinh H, Duong Nguyen M, Diep To S, Walsh Amanda L, et al. Quantitation of Bacteria in Bone Marrow from Patients with Typhoid Fever: Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(4):1571-6. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.39.4.1571-1576.2001] [PMID] [PMCID]
48. Cockerill FR, III, Wilson JW, Vetter EA, Goodman KM, Torgerson CA, Harmsen WS, et al. Optimal Testing Parameters for Blood Cultures. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(12):1724-30. [DOI:10.1086/421087] [PMID]
49. Edelman R, Levine MM. Summary of an international workshop on typhoid fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1986;8(3):329-49. [DOI:10.1093/clinids/8.3.329] [PMID]
50. Farooqui BJ, Khurshid M, Ashfaq MK, Khan MA. Comparative yield of Salmonella typhi from blood and bone marrow cultures in patients with fever of unknown origin. J Clin Pathol. 1991;44(3):258. [DOI:10.1136/jcp.44.3.258] [PMID] [PMCID]
51. Sinha A, Sazawal S, Kumar R, Sood S, Reddaiah VP, Singh B, et al. Typhoid fever in children aged less than 5 years. The Lancet. 1999;354(9180):734-7. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)09001-1] [PMID]
52. Gasem MH, Dolmans WM, Isbandrio BB, Wahyono H, Keuter M, Djokomoeljanto R. Culture of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi from blood and bone marrow in suspected typhoid fever. Trop Geogr Med. 1995;47(4):164-7.
53. Zhou L, Jones C, Gibani MM, Dobinson H, Thomaides-Brears H, Shrestha S, et al. Development and evaluation of a blood culture PCR assay for rapid detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in clinical samples. PloS one. 2016;11(3):e0150576. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0150576] [PMID] [PMCID]
54. Levy H, Diallo S, Tennant Sharon M, Livio S, Sow Samba O, Tapia M, et al. PCR Method To Identify Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B among Salmonella Isolates from the Blood of Patients with Clinical Enteric Fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(5):1861-6. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.00109-08] [PMID] [PMCID]
55. Boyd MA, Tennant SM, Melendez JH, Toema D, Galen JE, Geddes CD, et al. Adaptation of red blood cell lysis represents a fundamental breakthrough that improves the sensitivity of Salmonella detection in blood. J Appl Microbiol. 2015;118(5):1199-209. [DOI:10.1111/jam.12769] [PMID] [PMCID]
56. Zhou L, Pollard AJ. A novel method of selective removal of human DNA improves PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in blood samples. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):164. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-164] [PMID] [PMCID]
57. Fan F, Du P, Kan B, Yan M. The development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. PloS One. 2015;10(4):e0124507. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124507] [PMID] [PMCID]
58. Frickmann H, Wiemer DF, Wassill L, Hinz R, Rojak S, Wille A, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based detection of typhoid fever on an automated Genie II Mk2 system - A case-control-based approach. Acta Trop. 2019;190:293-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.12.004] [PMID]
59. Nizami SQ, Bhutta ZA, Siddiqui AA, Lubbad L. Enhanced detection rate of typhoid fever in children in a periurban slum in Karachi, Pakistan using polymerase chain reaction technology. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2006;66(5):429-36. [DOI:10.1080/00365510600791724] [PMID]
60. Song JH, Cho H, Park MY, Na DS, Moon HB, Pai CH. Detection of Salmonella typhi in the blood of patients with typhoid fever by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31(6):1439-43. [DOI:10.1128/jcm.31.6.1439-1443.1993] [PMID] [PMCID]
61. Ali A, Haque A, Haque A, Sarwar Y, Mohsin M, Bashir S, et al. Multiplex PCR for differential diagnosis of emerging typhoidal pathogens directly from blood samples. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(1). [DOI:10.1017/S0950268808000654] [PMID]
62. Zhu Q, Lim CK, Chan YN. Detection of Salmonella typhi by polymerase chain reaction. J Appl Bacteriol. 1996;80(3):244-51. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1996.tb03216.x] [PMID]
63. Ambati SR, Nath G, Das BK. Diagnosis of typhoid fever by polymerase chain reaction. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74(10):909-13. [DOI:10.1007/s12098-007-0167-y] [PMID]
64. Kumar A, Arora V, Bashamboo A, Ali S. Detection of Salmonella typhi by polymerase chain reaction: Implications in diagnosis of typhoid fever. Infect Genet Evol. 2002;2(2):107-10. [DOI:10.1016/S1567-1348(02)00090-4] [PMID]
65. Nasrum Massi M, Shirakawa T, Gotoh A, Bishnu A, Hatta M, Kawabata M. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from blood of suspected typhoid fever patients by real-time PCR. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295(2):117-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2005.01.003] [PMID]
66. Nga TVT, Karkey A, Dongol S, Thuy HN, Dunstan S, Holt K, et al. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonellaserovars in biological specimens. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10(1):125. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-125] [PMID] [PMCID]
67. Tennant SM, Toema D, Qamar F, Iqbal N, Boyd MA, Marshall JM, et al. Detection of Typhoidal and Paratyphoidal Salmonella in Blood by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(suppl_4):S241-S50. [DOI:10.1093/cid/civ726] [PMID] [PMCID]
68. Nakaya HI, Wrammert J, Lee EK, Racioppi L, Marie-Kunze S, Haining WN, et al. Systems biology of vaccination for seasonal influenza in humans. Nat Immunol. 2011;12(8):786-95. [DOI:10.1038/ni.2067] [PMID] [PMCID]
69. Berry MPR, Graham CM, McNab FW, Xu Z, Bloch SAA, Oni T, et al. An interferon-inducible neutrophil-driven blood transcriptional signature in human tuberculosis. Nature. 2010;466(7309):973-7. [DOI:10.1038/nature09247] [PMID] [PMCID]
70. Mejias A, Dimo B, Suarez NM, Garcia C, Suarez-Arrabal MC, Jartti T, et al. Whole blood gene expression profiles to assess pathogenesis and disease severity in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection. PLoS Med. 2013;10(11):e1001549. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001549] [PMID] [PMCID]
71. Subramaniam KS, Spaulding E, Ivan E, Mutimura E, Kim RS, Liu X, et al. The T-Cell Inhibitory Molecule Butyrophilin-Like 2 Is Up-regulated in Mild Plasmodium falciparum Infection and Is Protective During Experimental Cerebral Malaria. J Infect Dis. 2015;212(8):1322-31. [DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv217] [PMID] [PMCID]
72. Hoang Long T, Lynn David J, Henn M, Birren Bruce W, Lennon Niall J, Le Phuong T, et al. The Early Whole-Blood Transcriptional Signature of Dengue Virus and Features Associated with Progression to Dengue Shock Syndrome in Vietnamese Children and Young Adults. J Virol. 2010;84(24):12982-94. [DOI:10.1128/JVI.01224-10] [PMID] [PMCID]
73. Barton AJ, Hill J, Pollard AJ, Blohmke CJ. Transcriptomics in Human Challenge Models. Front Immunol. 2017;8. [DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01839] [PMID] [PMCID]
74. Blohmke CJ, Hill J, Darton TC, Carvalho-Burger M, Eustace A, Jones C, et al. Induction of Cell Cycle and NK Cell Responses by Live-Attenuated Oral Vaccines against Typhoid Fever. Front Immunol. 2017;8. [DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01276] [PMID] [PMCID]
75. Vahey MT, Wang Z, Kester KE, Cummings J, Heppner DG, Jr., Nau ME, et al. Expression of genes associated with immunoproteasome processing of major histocompatibility complex peptides is indicative of protection with adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(4):580-9. [DOI:10.1086/650310] [PMID]
76. Li S, Sullivan NL, Rouphael N, Yu T, Banton S, Maddur MS, et al. Metabolic Phenotypes of Response to Vaccination in Humans. Cell. 2017;169(5):862-77.e17. [DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.026] [PMID] [PMCID]
77. Blohmke CJ, Muller J, Gibani MM, Dobinson H, Shrestha S, Perinparajah S, et al. Diagnostic host gene signature for distinguishing enteric fever from other febrile diseases. EMBO Mol Med. 2019;11(10):e10431. [DOI:10.15252/emmm.201910431] [PMID] [PMCID]
78. Gliddon HD, Herberg JA, Levin M, Kaforou M. Genome-wide host RNA signatures of infectious diseases: discovery and clinical translation. Immunology. 2018;153(2):171-8. [DOI:10.1111/imm.12841] [PMID] [PMCID]
79. Darton TC, Baker S, Randall A, Dongol S, Karkey A, Voysey M, et al. Identification of Novel Serodiagnostic Signatures of Typhoid Fever Using a Salmonella Proteome Array. Front Microbiol. 2017;8. [DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01794] [PMID] [PMCID]
80. Charles Richelle C, Sheikh A, Krastins B, Harris Jason B, Bhuiyan MS, LaRocque Regina C, et al. Characterization of Anti-Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Antibody Responses in Bacteremic Bangladeshi Patients by an Immunoaffinity Proteomics-Based Technology. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17(8):1188-95. [DOI:10.1128/CVI.00104-10] [PMID] [PMCID]
81. Davies DH, Jain A, Nakajima R, Liang L, Jasinskis A, Supnet M, et al. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG Against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95(2):431-9. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0869] [PMID] [PMCID]
82. Felgner J, Jain A, Nakajima R, Liang L, Jasinskas A, Gotuzzo E, et al. Development of ELISAs for diagnosis of acute typhoid fever in Nigerian children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(6):e0005679. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005679] [PMID] [PMCID]
83. Ansong C, Yoon H, Norbeck AD, Gustin JK, McDermott JE, Mottaz HM, et al. Proteomics Analysis of the Causative Agent of Typhoid Fever. J Proteome Res. 2008;7(2):546-57. [DOI:10.1021/pr070434u] [PMID]
84. Islam K, Sayeed MA, Hossen E, Khanam F, Charles RC, Andrews J, et al. Comparison of the performance of the TPTest, Tubex, Typhidot and Widal immunodiagnostic assays and blood cultures in detecting patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh, including using a Bayesian latent class modeling approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(4):e0004558. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004558] [PMID] [PMCID]
85. Sheikh A, Bhuiyan MS, Khanam F, Chowdhury F, Saha A, Ahmed D, et al. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi-Specific Immunoglobulin A Antibody Responses in Plasma and Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant Specimens in Bangladeshi Patients with Suspected Typhoid Fever. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16(11):1587-94. [DOI:10.1128/CVI.00311-09] [PMID] [PMCID]
86. Khanam F, Sheikh A, Sayeed MA, Bhuiyan MS, Choudhury FK, Salma U, et al. Evaluation of a typhoid/paratyphoid diagnostic assay (TPTest) detecting anti-Salmonella IgA in secretions of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(7):e2316. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002316] [PMID] [PMCID]
87. Zurfluh S, Baumgartner T, Meier MA, Ottiger M, Voegeli A, Bernasconi L, et al. The role of metabolomic markers for patients with infectious diseases: implications for risk stratification and therapeutic modulation. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018;16(2):133-42. [DOI:10.1080/14787210.2018.1426460] [PMID]
88. Nasstrom E, Thieu N, Dongol S, Karkey A, Vinh P, Thanh T, et al. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever. eLife. 2014;3:e03100. [DOI:10.7554/eLife.03100] [PMID] [PMCID]
89. Capati A, Ijare OB, Bezabeh T. Diagnostic Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Urinary Metabolomics. Magn Reson Insights. 2017;10:1178623X17694346. [DOI:10.1177/1178623X17694346] [PMID] [PMCID]
90. French CD, Willoughby RE, Pan A, Wong SJ, Foley JF, Wheat LJ, et al. NMR metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid differentiates inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12(12):e0007045. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007045] [PMID] [PMCID]
91. Shrinet J, Shastri JS, Gaind R, Bhavesh NS, Sunil S. Serum metabolomics analysis of patients with chikungunya and dengue mono/co-infections reveals distinct metabolite signatures in the three disease conditions. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):36833. [DOI:10.1038/srep36833] [PMID] [PMCID]
92. Weiner J, Maertzdorf J, Sutherland JS, Duffy FJ, Thompson E, Suliman S, et al. Metabolite changes in blood predict the onset of tuberculosis. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):5208. [DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-07635-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
93. Näsström E, Parry CM, Vu Thieu NT, Maude RR, de Jong HK, Fukushima M, et al. Reproducible diagnostic metabolites in plasma from typhoid fever patients in Asia and Africa. eLife. 2017;6:e15651. [DOI:10.7554/eLife.15651] [PMID] [PMCID]
94. McKinnon LR, Abdool Karim Q. Honing in on enteric fever. eLife. 2014;3:e03545. [DOI:10.7554/eLife.03545] [PMID] [PMCID]
95. Deksissa T, Gebremedhin EZ. A cross-sectional study of enteric fever among febrile patients at Ambo hospital: prevalence, risk factors, comparison of Widal test and stool culture and antimicrobials susceptibility pattern of isolates. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19(1):288. [DOI:10.1186/s12879-019-3917-3] [PMID] [PMCID]
96. Ameya G, Atalel E, Kebede B, Yohannes B. Comparative study of Widal test against stool culture for typhoid fever suspected cases in southern Ethiopia. Pathol Lab Med Int. 2017;9:1. [DOI:10.2147/PLMI.S124155]
97. Minjibir AA, Diso SU, Ibrahim IS, Abdallah MS, Ali M. Comparative Study of Widal test Against Stool Culture in Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Suspected Cases in Kano, Northern Nigeria. South Asian Res J Eng Tech. 2020;2(5):39-44. [DOI:10.36346/sarjet.2020.v02i05.001]
98. Mawazo A, Bwire GM, Matee MIN. Performance of Widal test and stool culture in the diagnosis of typhoid fever among suspected patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Research Notes. 2019;12(1):316. [DOI:10.1186/s13104-019-4340-y] [PMID] [PMCID]
99. Ohanu ME. Typhoid fever among febrile Nigerian patients: Prevalence, diagnostic performance of the Widal test and antibiotic multi-drug resistance. Malawi Med J. 2019;31(3):184-92. [DOI:10.4314/mmj.v31i3.4] [PMID] [PMCID]
100. Ramyi M, Ihuoma O, Ogundeko T, Ameh J, Olorundare F, Adeniyi O, et al. Comparative study on the use of widal test and stool culture in the laboratory diagnosis of salmonella infection in adult and children in jos metropolis, plateau state, Nigeria. Int J Sci Res. 2013;2(12).
101. Wam EC, Arrey CN, Sama LF, Agyingi LA, Wam AN. Comparative study on the use of Widal test to stool culture in the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever in Holy Family Hospital Akum, North West Region of Cameroon. Open Microbiol J. 2019;13(1). [DOI:10.2174/1874285801913010073]
102. Lalremruata R, Chadha S, Bhalla P. Retrospective audit of the widal test for diagnosis of typhoid Fever in pediatric patients in an endemic region. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(5):Dc22-5.
103. Andualem G, Abebe T, Kebede N, Gebre-Selassie S, Mihret A, Alemayehu H. A comparative study of Widal test with blood culture in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in febrile patients. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):653. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-653] [PMID] [PMCID]
104. Maheshwari V, Kaore NM, Ramnani VK, Sarda SA. Comparative evaluation of different diagnostic modalities in the diagnosis of typhoid fever using a composite reference standard; a tertiary hospital based study in central india. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(10):DC01. [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2016/20426.8684] [PMID] [PMCID]
105. Sharanya K, Lakshmi K, Vinod K, Chitralekha S. Development of Inhouse Immunoblot Method for Detection of Anti Salmonella Antibody and Comparison with Widal Test. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2018;12(3):1195-200. [DOI:10.22207/JPAM.12.3.19]
106. Shahapur PR, Shahapur R, Nimbal A, Suvvari TK, Silva RGD, Kandi V. Traditional Widal Agglutination Test Versus Rapid Immunochromatographic Test in the Diagnosis of Enteric Fever: A Prospective Study From South India. Cureus. 2021;13(10). [DOI:10.7759/cureus.18474] [PMID] [PMCID]
107. Ousenu K, Ali IM, Sama LF, Ndam MN, Tchouangueu TF, Tume CB. A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of the Performance of the Widal Test and the Typhidot Immunoassay for Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in the West Region of Cameroon. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2021;2021:8279122. [DOI:10.1155/2021/8279122] [PMID] [PMCID]
108. Akter F, Yeasmin M, Alam MZ, Hasan MR, Rahman F, Khandker E, et al. Comparative evaluation of rapid Salmonella Typhi IgM/IgG and Widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever. IMC J Med Sci. 2020;14(1):18-25. [DOI:10.3329/imcjms.v10i1.31101]
109. Strobel AG, Airs S, Nguyen C, Vadei TR, Matanitobua S, Kama M, et al. Assessment of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid Diagnosis and Assessment of Febrile Illness Outbreaks in Fiji. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022;106(2):543. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0771] [PMID] [PMCID]
110. Salama RI, Said NM. A Comparative Study of the Typhidot (Dot-EIA) versus Widal Test in Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever among Egyptian Patients. Open J Gastroenterol. 2019;9(06):91. [DOI:10.4236/ojgas.2019.96011]
111. Enabulele O, Awunor SN. Typhoid fever in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria: Another look at the Widal agglutination test as a preferred option for diagnosis. Niger Med J. 2016;57(3):145-9. [DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.184057] [PMID] [PMCID]
112. Ley B, Thriemer K, Ame SM, Mtove GM, von Seidlein L, Amos B, et al. Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex®) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11(1):147. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-11-147] [PMID] [PMCID]
113. Khan K, Khalid L, Wahid K, Ali I. Performance of TUBEX® TF in the diagnosis of enteric fever in private tertiary care Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan. J Pakistan Med Associa. 2017;67(5):661.
114. Garg S, Sankhe A, Joshi A, Mehta S. Comparison of Typhidot IgM test and Blood culture in children with clinically compatible enteric fever. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2018;5(6):2129-32. [DOI:10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20184270]
115. Javed H, Hussain K, Bashir T, Ullah S, Ijaz U, Khoso I. Diagnostic Accuracy of Typhidot in Patients of Typhoid Fever. Pakistan Armed Forces Med J. 2018;68.
116. Mehmood K, Sundus A, Naqvi IH, Ibrahim MF, Siddique O, Ibrahim NF. Typhidot - A blessing or a menace. Pak J Med Sci. 2015;31(2):439-43. [DOI:10.12669/pjms.312.5934] [PMID] [PMCID]
117. Aziz T, Haque SS. Role of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in context to other test. Am J Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;2:16-8. [DOI:10.5923/j.ajb.20120201.04]
118. Khan S, Harish BN, Menezes GA, Acharya NS, Parija SC. Early diagnosis of typhoid fever by nested PCR for flagellin gene of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Indian J Med Res. 2012;136(5):850-4.
119. El-Sayed AKA, El-Shishtawy M, El-Taweel F, El-Mansoury H. Multiplex PCR for diagnosis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Clin Lab. 2015;61(10):1537-43. [DOI:10.7754/Clin.Lab.2015.150115] [PMID]
120. Narayanappa D, Sripathi R, JagdishKumar K, Rajani HS. Comparative study of dot enzyme immunoassay (Typhidot-M) and Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47(4):331-3. [DOI:10.1007/s13312-010-0062-x] [PMID]
121. Khoharo HK. A comparative study of the typhidot (Dot-EIA) and Widal tests in blood culture positive cases of typhoid fever. Trop Doct. 2011;41(3):136-8. [DOI:10.1258/td.2011.100406] [PMID]
122. Patel RP, Trivedi MB. Study of diagnostic efficacy of widal slide agglutination test against widal tube agglutination test in enteric fever. Indian J Microbiol Res. 2017;4(3):267-9.
123. Sherwal BL, Dhamija RK, Randhawa VS, Jais M, Kaintura A, Kumar M. A comparative study of Typhidot and Widal test in patients of Typhoid fever. J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2004;5(3):244-6.
124. Tarupiwa A, Tapera S, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Gumbo P, Ruhanya V, Gudza-Mugabe M, et al. Evaluation of TUBEX-TF and OnSite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo rapid tests to detect Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection during a typhoid outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8(1):50. [DOI:10.1186/s13104-015-1015-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
125. Adhikari A, Rauniyar R, Raut PP, Manandhar KD, Gupta BP. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of ELISA against Widal test for typhoid diagnosis in endemic population of Kathmandu. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15(1):523. [DOI:10.1186/s12879-015-1248-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
126. Beig FK, Ahmad F, Ekram M, Shukla I. Typhidot M and Diazo test vis-a-vis blood culture and Widal test in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever in children in a resource poor setting. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010;14:589-93. [DOI:10.1590/S1413-86702010000600007] [PMID]
127. Anagha K, Deepika B, Shahriar R, Sanjeev K. The easy and early diagnosis of typhoid fever. J Clin Diagn Res. 2012;6(2):198-9.
128. Siba V, Horwood Paul F, Vanuga K, Wapling J, Sehuko R, Siba Peter M, et al. Evaluation of Serological Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid Fever in Papua New Guinea Using a Composite Reference Standard. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(11):1833-7. [DOI:10.1128/CVI.00380-12] [PMID] [PMCID]
129. Olsen Sonja J, Pruckler J, Bibb W, Thanh Nguyen Thi M, Trinh Tran M, Minh Nguyen T, et al. Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid Fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(5):1885-9. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.42.5.1885-1889.2004] [PMID] [PMCID]
130. Zaka-ur-Rab Z, Abqari S, Shahab T, Islam N, Shukla I. Evaluation of salivary anti-Salmonella typhi lipopolysaccharide IgA ELISA for serodiagnosis of typhoid fever in children. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97(3):236. [DOI:10.1136/adc.2011.300622] [PMID]
131. Das S, Rajendran K, Dutta P, Saha TK, Dutta S. Validation of a new serology-based dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76(1):5-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.01.012] [PMID]
132. Sharma T, Sharma C, Sankhyan A, Bedi SP, Bhatnagar S, Khanna N, et al. Serodiagnostic evaluation of recombinant CdtB of S. Typhi as a potential candidate for acute typhoid. Immunol Res. 2018;66(4):503-12. [DOI:10.1007/s12026-018-9009-4] [PMID]
133. Ong EBB, Ignatius J, Anthony AA, Aziah I, Ismail A, Lim TS. Multi-isotype antibody responses against the multimeric Salmonella Typhi recombinant hemolysin E antigen. Microbiol Immunol. 2015;59(1):43-7. [DOI:10.1111/1348-0421.12211] [PMID]
134. Redhuan NEM, Chin KL, Adnan AS, Ismail A, Balaram P, Phua KK. Salivary Anti-50 kDa Antibodies as a Useful Biomarker for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(6):Dc10-dc3. [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2017/21928.10055] [PMID] [PMCID]
135. Franklin F, Chong CW, Chua LH, Anthony AA, Liew MWO, Aziah I, et al. Evaluation of Salmonella Typhi antigen YncE alongside HlyE for the detection of typhoid fever and its carriers. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2020;209(5):593-601. [DOI:10.1007/s00430-020-00667-1] [PMID]
136. Crump JA, Mintz ED. Global Trends in Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(2):241-6. [DOI:10.1086/649541] [PMID] [PMCID]
137. DeRoeck D, Clemens JD, Nyamete A, Mahoney RT. Policymakers' views regarding the introduction of new-generation vaccines against typhoid fever, shigellosis and cholera in Asia. Vaccine. 2005;23(21):2762-74. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.11.044] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc