year 14, Issue 5 (September - October 2020)                   Iran J Med Microbiol 2020, 14(5): 490-500 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hegazi A, Al Guthami F M, Al Gethami A, Fouad E A. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Some Saudi Arabia Honey Products. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2020; 14 (5) :490-500
1- Department of Zoonotic Diseases, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt ,
2- Al Guthami Foundation, Saudi Arabia
3- Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Abstract:   (1888 Views)

Background: The current study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of some Saudi Arabia honey products.
Materials & Methods: For this investigation, sixty Saudi Arabia honey products were tested to determine the antimicrobial activity against highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens as well as antioxidant activity in comparison with Manuka honey as a standard.
Results: Testing Saudi Arabia honeys, different levels of growth suppression were observed against five bacterial strains. The pathogenic strains were Staphylococcus aureusas, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter diversus and Salmonella enterica. These suppression levels depended on the type of honey. The comparative study of Saudi Arabia honeys revealed a strong correlation between total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and significant radical scavenging activities.
Conclusion:  It was concluded that Saudi Arabia honey products have the capacity to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria and perform significant radical scavenging activities. 

Full-Text [PDF 539 kb]   (811 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1145 Views)  
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Medical Bacteriology
Received: 2020/06/16 | Accepted: 2020/09/21 | ePublished: 2020/10/5

1. Ayukekbong J.A., Ntemgwa M. and Atabe A N. (): The threat of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries: causes and control strategies. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 2017; 6:47, 1-8 [DOI:10.1186/s13756-017-0208-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Patel A., Chauhan P.B. Antimicrobial effect of Honey on MRSA isolated from pus samples. Int. J. Drug Res. Technol. 2017; 6:58-63.
3. Levy S.B., Marshall B. Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nat. Med. 2004;10: S122-S129. [DOI:10.1038/nm1145] [PMID]
4. Mandal S., Pal N.K., Chowdhury I.H., Debmandal M.: Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim, alone and in combination, against Vibrio cholerae O 1 Biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa isolates. Pol. J. Microbiol. 2009; 58:57-60.
5. Alvarez-Suarez J. M, Tulipani S, Romandini S, Bertoli E, Battino M.: Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: A review. Med. J. Nutr. Metab. 2010; 3:15-23. [DOI:10.3233/s12349-009-0051-6]
6. Hegazi A.G.: Medical importance of bee products. ARI BİLİMİ / BEE SCIENCE. 2012;12(4): 136-146.
7. Chute R. K, Deogade N. G, Kawale M. Antimicrobial activity of Indian honey against clinical isolates. Italic Asiatic J. Biotechnol. Resour. 2010; 1:35-38.
8. Hegazi A. G. Antimicrobial Activity of Different Egyptian Honeys as Comparison of Saudi Arabia Hone, Res.J.of Microb 2011; 6 (5): 488-495 [DOI:10.3923/jm.2011.488.495]
9. Hegazi A. G, Abd Allah F. M. Antimicrobial activity of different Saudi Arabia honeys. Glob. Vet. 2012; 9(1):53-59.
10. Pimentel, R.B.dQ., da Costa C.A., Albuquerque P.M. and Duvoisin Junior S. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Meliponacompressipesmanaosensis and commercial honey. BMC Comp. and Alter. Med, 2013; 13: 151. [DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-151] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Hegazi A. G., Al Guthami, F. M, Al Gethami AF. M., Abd Allah F M., Saleh A A. and Fouad E A. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey. Vet. World, 2017; 10 (2): 233-237. [DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2017.233-237] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Subrahmanyam M, Hemmady A, Pawar S. G. Antibacterial activity of honey on bacteria isolated from wounds. Ann. Burns Fire Disasters. 2001; 14:198-201.
13. Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9:61. [DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-9-61] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Kahraman T., Buyukunal S K., Vural A., Altunatmaz SS. (2010):Physico-chemical properties in honey from different regions of Turkey. Food Chemistry 2010; 123 (1): 41-44. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.123]
15. Abu-Tarboush, H. M., Al-Kahtani, H. A., & El-Sarrage, M. S. Floral type identification and quality evaluation of some honey types. Food Chemistry 1993; 46:13-17. [DOI:10.1016/0308-8146(93)90068-Q]
16. Mendes, E., Brojo, P. E., Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V. O., & Ferreira, M. A. Quality evaluation of Portuguese honey. Carbohydrate Polymers 1998; 37(3):219-223. [DOI:10.1016/S0144-8617(98)00063-0]
17. Yilmaz, H., & Yavuz, O. Content of some traces metals in honey from southeastern Anatolia. Food Chemistry1999; 65, 475-476. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00205-2]
18. Przybylowski, P., & Wilczynska, A. Honey as an environmental marker. Food Chemistry 2001; 74:289-291. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00153-4]
19. Unal, C., & Kuplulu, O. Chemical quality of strained honey consumed in Ankara. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 2006;53: 1-4. [DOI:10.1501/Vetfak_0000000058]
20. Ouchemoukh, S., Louaileche, H., & Schweitzer, P. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Algerian honeys. Food Control 2007; 18: 52-58 [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.08.007]
21. Kamboj R. Bera MB. and Nanda V. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, trace metal content and antioxidant activity of Indian honeys. International Journal of Food Sci,and Tech. 2013; 48, (3): 578-587 [DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12002]
22. Kulkarni SS., Patil SB., Mishra S., Math AK., Panda SK. and Rao KL. Physicochemical Characteristics, Heavy Metal Analysis and Antioxidant Potential of Jamun Honey (Syzygium Cumini L.) from Western Ghats, India. Indian J. of Pub.Heal. Research & Devel.2020;11, (2), DOI Number: 10.37506/v11/i2/2020/ijphrd/194744 17 [DOI:10.37506/v11/i2/2020/ijphrd/194744]
23. Meda A., Lamien C. E., Romito M., Millogo J., and Nacoulma O. G. "Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity," Food Chemistry 2005; 91 (3):571-577. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.006]
24. Hegazi A.G.; Nagia Z. Moharm; Fyrouz Abd Allah; M.S. Nour and A.M.Khair Antibacterial activity of different Egyptian honeys in relation to some bee products. Egypt. J. Vet. Sci. 2002; 36: 31-42.
25. Chua LS., Rahaman NLA., Adnan NA. and Tan TTE. Antioxidant Activity of Three Honey Samples in relation with Their Biochemical Components. Jf Anal. Meth.Chem. 2013; Article ID 313798, 8 pages. [DOI:10.1155/2013/313798] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Gheldof N., Wang X., and Engeseth N. J. "Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002; 50, (21):5870-5877. [DOI:10.1021/jf0256135] [PMID]
27. Halawani E. M. and Shohayeb M.M. Shaoka and Sidr Honeys Surpass in Their Antibacterial Activity Local and Imported Honeys Available in Saudi Markets Against Pathogenic and Food Spoilage Bacteria Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2011- a; 5(4): 187-191.
28. Halawani E. M. A, Shohayeb M. M. Survey of the antibacterial activity of Saudi and some international honeys. Jpn. Meteorol. Agency. 2011-b;3(4):94-101.
29. Louveaux, J., Maurizio, A., Vorwhol, G. Methods of melissopalynology. Bee World 1978; 59:139-157. [DOI:10.1080/0005772X.1978.11097714]
30. EL-Metwally, A.A.E., Factors Affecting the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Egyptian Beehoney. Ph. D. Thesis,Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ. 2015; 320p.
31. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edn), ed. K. Helrich. Association of Otticial Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, VA, USA, 1990.
32. Crane, E.. Bees and Beekeeping. Science, Practice and Worm Resources. International Bee Research Association,Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York, USA., 1990.
33. AOAC, Association of official analytical chemists. Sugars and sugar products. In: Horwitz, W. (Ed.), Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 2000; 2(44):22-33.
34. AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th ed. Official Methods of Analysis, Maryland, USA., 2005.
35. Katirciolu, H. and N. Mercan, Antimicrobial activity and chemical compositions of Turkish propolis from different regions. African J Biotech 2006.nolo; 5 (11):1151-1153.
36. Beretta G, Granata P, Ferrero M, Orioli M, Facino RM. Standardization of antioxidant properties of honey by a combination of spectrophotometric/fluorimetric assays and chemometrics. Anal Chim Acta. 2005; 533(2):185-91 [DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.010]
37. Bertoncelj J., Doberˇsek U., Jamnik M., and Golob T. "Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey," Food Chemistry 2007; 105, (2): 822-828. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.060]
38. Isla MI, Craig A, Ordoñez R, et al. Physico chemical and bioactive properties of honeys from Northwestern Argentina. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie. 2011;44(9):1922-1930. [DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.003]
39. Molyneux, P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J. sci. technol 2004; 26(2): 211-219.
40. SASO Saudi Organization for standardization and quality control. Bee Honey and Methods of Analysis, 1978.
41. Vorwhol, G. Die beziehungen zuischen derelektrischen litfalingkiet der Honig und ihrer trachtmassigen herkungt. Ann. Abeille., 1984; 7 (4):301-309. [DOI:10.1051/apido:19640403]
42. Abd Alla, A.E., Nour, M.E., Ewies, M.A., Parameters of sugar feeding honey produced from honeybees, Apis mellifera L. colonies in Egypt. Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt 2014; 91, 43-53.
43. Can, Z., Yildiz, O., Sahin, H., Turumtay, E. A., Silici, S., & Kolayli, S. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles. Food Chemistry 2015;180: 133-141 [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.024] [PMID]
44. Malkoç, M., Çakır, H., Yakup, K. A. R. A., Zehra, C. A. N., & Kolaylı, S. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Anzer honey from black sea region of Turkey. Uludağ Arıcılık Dergisi 2019; 19(2): 143-151. [DOI:10.31467/uluaricilik.602906]
45. Singh, N., Bath, P.K. Quality evaluation of different types of Indian honey. Food Chem. 1997; 58: 129-133. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00231-2]
46. Terrab A., MJ. Díez and Heredia FJ. Palynological, physicochemical and colour characterization of Moroccan honeys: I. River red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh) honey. jsfa. 2003; 38 (4): 379-386 [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00715.x]
47. Codex Alimentations, Draft revised standard for standard for honey (at step 10 of the Codex procedure). Alinorm 2001; 01 (25): 19-26.
48. Council Directive of the European :union:: Council Directive 2001/110/ EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey. Official Journal of the European Communities 2002; L10:47-52.
49. Crane, E. Honey: A Comprehensive Survey. Heinemann, London, 608, 1979.
50. Buba, F., Gidado, A., Shugaba, A. Analysis of biochemical composition of honey samples from North-East Nigeria. Biochem. Anal. Biochem 2013; 2 (3), 139. [DOI:10.4172/2161-1009.1000139]
51. Manzoor, M., Shah, G.H.N., Mathivanan, V., Mir, G.M., Shahnawaz, A.D. Chemical analysis of honey of Apis cerana F. and Apis mellifera from Plains of Jammu and Kashmiri and Tamil Nadu. Int. J. Agri. Sci. Res. 2013; 3 (4): 139-146.
52. White, J.W., Doner, L.W. Honey Composition and Properties: Beekeeping in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 335, 82-91., 1980.
53. EOSC. Egyptian Organization for standardization and quality control, EOSC, 2005. Bee Honey and Methods of Analysis. Part 1, p. 10, 2005.
54. Amir, Y., Yesli, A., Bengana, M., Sadoudi, R., Amrouche, T. Physico-chemical and microbiologica assessment of honey from Algeria. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 2010; 9 (9): 1485-1494.
55. Devillers, J., Morlot, M., Pham-Delegue, M. H., & Dore, J. C. Classification of monofloral honeys based on their quality control data. Food Chemistry 2004; 86: 305-312 [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.09.029]
56. Turkut, G. M., Degirmenci, A., Yildiz, O., Can, Z., Cavrar, S., Karahalil, F. Y., & Kolayli, S. Investigating 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation kinetic and antioxidant activity in heat treated honey from different floral sources. J Food Measur and Characte. 2018; 12(4): 2358-2365. [DOI:10.1007/s11694-018-9852-y]
57. Sahin H., Kolayli S. and Beykaya M. Investigation of Variations of Invertase and Glucose Oxidase Degrees against Heating and Timing Options in Raw Honeys Hindawi, J Chem Volume 2020, Article ID 5398062, 7 pages [DOI:10.1155/2020/5398062]
58. Bankar SB., Bule MV., Singhal RS., and Ananthanarayan L "Glucose oxidase-an overview," Biotechnology Advances, 2009; 27, (4): 489-501. [DOI:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.04.003] [PMID]
59. Kamboj R., Sandhu RS., Kaler RSS., Bera MB. and Nanda V. "Optimization of process parameters on hydroxymethylfurfural content, diastase and invertase activity of coriander honey," JFST. 2019; 56, (7): 3205-3214. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-019-03774-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
60. Perez-Arquillu C., Conchello P., Arifio A., Juan T. and Herrera A. Quality evaluation of Spanish rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) honey. Food Chem 1994; 51 : 207 210 [DOI:10.1016/0308-8146(94)90258-5]
61. Sancho, M. T., Muniategui, S., Huidobro, J. F. & Simal, J. Aging of honey. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1992; 40:134-8. [DOI:10.1021/jf00013a026]
62. Esti, M., Panfili, G., Marconi, E., & Trivisonno, M. C. Valorization of the honeys from the Molise region through physico-chemical, organoleptic and nutritional assessment. Food Chem 1997; 58(1-2): 125-128. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00228-2]
63. Akyuz, N., Bakirci, I., Ayar, A., & Tuncturk, Y. Van piyasasında satıs_a sunulan balların bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal ozellikleri ve bunların ilgili standarda uygunlug˘u uzerine bir aras_tırma. Gıda 1995;20(5): 321-326.
64. Al-Khalifa, A. S., & Al-Arify, I. A. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Saudi honeys. Food Chem 1999; 67: 21-25. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00096-5]
65. Yilmaz, H., & Kufrevioglu, I. Composition of honeys collected from eastern and south-eastern Anatolia and effect of storage on hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastase activity. Turk. J. Agri.and Forest 2000; 25: 347-349.
66. Ozcan, M., Arslan, D., & Ceylan, D. A. Effect of inverted saccharose on some properties of honey. Food Chem 2006; 99: 24-29. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.009]
67. Finola, M. S., Lasagno, M. C., & Marioli, J. M. Microbiological and chemical characterization of honeys from central Argentina. Food Chem 2007; 100:1649-1653. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.046]
68. Molan, P. Not all honeys are the same for wound healing. Bull. Eur. Tissue Rep. Soc. 2002; 9: 5-6
69. Halawani EM A study on Salmonella typhimurium causing food poisoning in Al-Taif city and antibacterial effect of Nigella sativa Honey and Camels urine. Ph.D Thesis. Taif University, Saudi Arabia, 2006.
70. Kwakman PH, Te Velde AA, De Boer L, Speijer DV, Enbroucke-Grauls CM, Zaat SA How honey kills bacteria. FASEB J. 2010; 24: 2576- 2582. [DOI:10.1096/fj.09-150789] [PMID]
71. Nassar HM, Li M, Gregory RL. Effect of Honey on Streptococcus mutans Growth and Biofilm Formation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012;78(2):536-540. doi:10.1128/AEM.05538-11 [DOI:10.1128/AEM.05538-11] [PMID] [PMCID]
72. Brudzynski K Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antibacterial activities of Canadian honeys. Can. J. Microbiol. 2006; 52: 1228-1237. [DOI:10.1139/w06-086] [PMID]
73. Mercan N, Guvensen A, Celik A, Katircioglu H. Antimicrobial activity and pollen composition of honey samples collected from different provinces in Turkey. Nat Prod Res. 2007; 21(3):187-95. [DOI:10.1080/14786410600906277] [PMID]
74. Nour, M. E. Some factors affecting quality of Egyptian honeys. Ph. D. Thesis. Fac. Agri. Cairo University, 1988.
75. Irish J, Blair S, Carter DA. The Antibacterial Activity of Honey Derived from Australian Flora. Otto M, ed. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(3): e18229. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018229] [PMID] [PMCID]
76. Watt BE, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA. Hydrogen peroxide poisoning. Toxicol. Rev. 2004; 23: 51-57. [DOI:10.2165/00139709-200423010-00006] [PMID]
77. Zainol MI, Mohd Yusoff K, Mohd Yusof MY. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2013;13:129. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-129. [DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-129] [PMID] [PMCID]
78. Mandal MD, Mandal S. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pac J Tropic Biomed. 2011;1(2):154-160. [DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60016-6]
79. Sufya N, Matar N, Kaddura R, Zorgani A. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat. Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 2014; 6:139-144. [DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S66496] [PMID] [PMCID]
80. Irish J, Blair S, Carter DA. The Antibacterial Activity of Honey Derived from Australian Flora. Otto M, ed. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(3): e18229. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018229] [PMID] [PMCID]
81. Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Khalil MI, Gan SH. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with Manuka honey. Chemistry Central Journal. 2013; 7:138. [DOI:10.1186/1752-153X-7-138] [PMID] [PMCID]
82. Mullai V, and Menon T. Bactericidal Activity of Different Types of Honey against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(4):439-42 [DOI:10.1089/acm.2007.6366] [PMID]
83. Mavric E, Wittmann S, Barth G, Henle T. Identification and quantification of methylglyoxal as the dominant Antibacterial constituent of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honeys from New Zaeland. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2008; 52(4): 483-489. [DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200700282] [PMID]
84. Ayaad, T. H.; Shaker G. H. and Almuhnaa A. M. Isolation of antibacterial peptides from Saudi Arabian honeybees and investigating the antimicrobial properties of natural honey samples. Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci. 2009; 2 (2): 23 - 34 [DOI:10.21608/eajbsa.2009.15426]
85. Lu J., Carter D A., Turnbull L., Rosendale D., Hedderley D., Stephens J., Gannabathula S., Steinhorn G. , Schlothauer R C., Whitchurch C B.,1 and Harry E J. The Effect of New Zealand Kanuka, Manuka and Clover Honeys on Bacterial Growth Dynamics and Cellular Morphology Varies According to the Species. Manganelli R, ed. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(2):e55898. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055898. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055898] [PMID] [PMCID]
86. Hegazi A. G, AbdEl-Moez S. I., Abdou A. M. and Abd Allah F. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Egyptian honey and common antibiotics against Clostridium Reference strains, Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 2014a;3(8): 312-325.
87. Hegazi A.G, Abd El-Moez S. I., Abdou A. M. and Abd Allah F. Antibacterial activity of some types of monofloral honey against Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium perfringens. Int.JCurMicobl.ApSci 2014b; 3(9) 552-565.
88. Hussain M.B., Hannan A., Akhtar N. , Fayyaz Q.G. , Imran M., Saleem S., and Qureshi I.A. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of selected Pakistani honeys against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15: 32. [DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0549-z] [PMID] [PMCID]
89. Kucuk, M., Kolaylı, S., Karaog˘lu, S., Ulusoy, E., Baltacı, C. & Candan, F. Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Food WHO, 2007. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.010]
90. Al‐Mamary M, Al‐Meeri A Al‐Habori M, Antioxidant activities and total phenolics of different types of honeys. Nutr Res 2002; 22: 1041-1047. [DOI:10.1016/S0271-5317(02)00406-2]
91. Aljadi AM Kamaruddin MY, Evaluation of the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of two Malaysian floral honeys. Food Chem 2004; 85: 513-518. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00596-4]
92. Heidari, T., Roozbahani, N., Farahani, L. A., Attarha, M., Torkestani, N. A., Jamilian, M., & Bekhradi, R. Does Iranian Astragalus gossypinus honey assist in healing caesarean wounds and scars? Europ.J. Integr. Med. 2013; 5(3): 226-233. [DOI:10.1016/j.eujim.2013.01.005]
93. Frankel S, Robinson GE Berenbaum MR, Antioxidant content and correlated characteristics of 14 monofloral honeys. J Apic Res 37: 27-31 (1998). [DOI:10.1080/00218839.1998.11100951]
94. Khalil MI, Moniruzzaman M, Boukraâ L, Benhanifia M, Islam MA, Islam MN, et al. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of algerian honey. Molecules. 2012;17(9):11199-215. [DOI:10.3390/molecules170911199] [PMID] [PMCID]
95. Al, M.L., Daniel, D., Moise, A., Bobis, O., Laslo, L. & Bogdanov, S. Physico-chemical and bioactive properties of different floral origin honeys from Romania. Food Chem. 2009;112: 863-867 [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.055]
96. Saxena S, Gautam S, Sharma A. Physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of some Indian honeys. Food Chem. 2010;118(2):391-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.05.001]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc