year 18, Issue 1 (January - February 2024)                   Iran J Med Microbiol 2024, 18(1): 57-65 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Taherkhani S, Abdollahi Boraei S B, Erfanian R, Firoozifar M, Hosseinzadeh Otaghvari F, Atashian S et al . Smell Identification Test (SIT) for Early Diagnosis of COVID-19: Demographic and Symptoms During The First Three Pandemic Waves in Iran. Iran J Med Microbiol 2024; 18 (1) :57-65
URL: http://ijmm.ir/article-1-2109-en.html
1- Department of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2- Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Interdisciplinary Technologies, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran , be.abdollahi@ut.ac.ir
3- Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4- Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
5- Biomedical Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
6- ENT and Head and Neck Surgery Research Center and Department, Rasool Akram Hospital, school of medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (452 Views)

Background and Aim: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a dangerous pandemic. It has several signs, such as; fever, cough, etc. Olfactory Dysfunction (OD) has been considered a prevalent symptom. In this study, we aimed to investigate the validity of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) to quickly screen for COVID-19.
Case Presentation: The participants in this study were 94 patients with COVID-19 referred to the Amiralam hospital. At first, the patients were asked to explain their symptoms, including Olfactory dysfunction, fever, etc. In the next step, the patients were examined for symptoms. The olfactory function of the participants was evaluated by SIT.
Conclusion: According to self-reported results, smell dysfunction was the most prevalent symptom. The results of ISIT were compared with the CT scan and RT-PCR which were performed by the hospital’s laboratory. The results showed that the highest accuracy was related to the ISIT test with 76.6%, followed by PCR with 68.5%, and Chest CT scan with 62. 1%. The results showed that OD can be considered the most common COVID-19 symptom and also that the ISIT showed the most accuracy in COVID-19 diagnosis.

Full-Text [PDF 895 kb]   (59 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Case report Article | Subject: Microbial Biotechnology
Received: 2023/08/22 | Accepted: 2023/11/18 | ePublished: 2024/03/18

References
1. Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS. Coronavirus Infections-More Than Just the Common Cold. JAMA. 2020;323(8):707-8. [DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.0757] [PMID]
2. Salmon Ceron D, Bartier S, Hautefort C, Nguyen Y, Nevoux J, Hamel AL, et al. Self-reported loss of smell without nasal obstruction to identify COVID-19. The multicenter Coranosmia cohort study. J Infect. 2020;81(4):614-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.07.005] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Bhattacharjee AS, Joshi SV, Naik S, Sangle S, Abraham NM. Quantitative assessment of olfactory dysfunction accurately detects asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers. EClinicalMedicine. 2020;28:100575. [DOI:10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100575] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Vaira LA, Salzano G, Deiana G, De Riu G. Anosmia and Ageusia: Common Findings in COVID-19 Patients. Laryngoscope. 2020;130(7):1787. [DOI:10.1002/lary.28692] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Cristina M, Ana MV, Maxim BF, Sajaysurya G, Julia SE-SM, Alessia V, et al. Loss of smell and taste in combination with other symptoms is a strong predictor of COVID-19 infection. medRxiv. 2020.
6. Kowalski LP, Sanabria A, Ridge JA, Ng WT, de Bree R, Rinaldo A, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: Effects and evidence-based recommendations for otolaryngology and head and neck surgery practice. Head Neck. 2020;42(6):1259-67. [DOI:10.1002/hed.26164] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Hjelmesæth J, Skaare D. Loss of smell or taste as the only symptom of COVID-19. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2020;140(7).
8. Bilinska K, Jakubowska P, Von Bartheld CS, Butowt R. Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Entry Proteins, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in Cells of the Olfactory Epithelium: Identification of Cell Types and Trends with Age. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020;11(11):1555-62. [DOI:10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00210] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Bertlich M, Stihl C, Weiss BG, Canis M, Haubner F, Ihler F. Characteristics of impaired chemosensory function in hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. 2020. [DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3576889]
10. Taherkhani S, Moztarzadeh F, Seraj J, Hashemi-Nazari SS, Taherkhani F, Gharehdaghi J, et al. Iran Smell Identification Test (Iran-SIT): a Modified Version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) for Iranian Population. Chemosens Percept. 2015;8(4):183-91. [DOI:10.1007/s12078-015-9192-9]
11. Tian J, Pinto JM, Cui X, Zhang H, Li L, Liu Y, et al. Sendai Virus Induces Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in a Murine Model of PVOD via Effects on Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, and Response to Odorants. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0159033. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0159033] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Wang JH, Kwon HJ, Jang YJ. Detection of Parainfluenza Virus 3 in Turbinate Epithelial Cells of Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction Patients. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(8):1445-9. [DOI:10.1097/MLG.0b013e318063e878] [PMID]
13. Suzuki M, Saito K, Min W-P, Vladau C, Toida K, Itoh H, Murakami S. Identification of Viruses in Patients With Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(2):272-7. [DOI:10.1097/01.mlg.0000249922.37381.1e] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Axel R. The molecular logic of smell. Sci Am. 1995;273(4):154-9. [DOI:10.1038/scientificamerican1095-154] [PMID]
15. Chetrit A, Lechien JR, Ammar A, Chekkoury-Idrissi Y, Distinguin L, Circiu M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of COVID-19 anosmic patients reveals abnormalities of the olfactory bulb: Preliminary prospective study. J Infect. 2020;81(5):816-46. [DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.07.028] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Chen M, Shen W, Rowan NR, Kulaga H, Hillel A, Ramanathan M, Jr., Lane AP. Elevated ACE-2 expression in the olfactory neuroepithelium: implications for anosmia and upper respiratory SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(3):2001948. [DOI:10.1183/13993003.01948-2020] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Lazarini F, Lledo PM. Is adult neurogenesis essential for olfaction? Trends Neurosci. 2011;34(1):20-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2010.09.006] [PMID]
18. Cao Y, Li L, Feng Z, Wan S, Huang P, Sun X, et al. Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations. Cell Discov. 2020;6(1):1-4. [DOI:10.1038/s41421-020-0147-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, Beckers E, Mustin V, Ducarme M, Journe F, et al. Prevalence and 6-month recovery of olfactory dysfunction: a multicentre study of 1363 COVID-19 patients. J Intern Med. 2021;290(2):451-61. [DOI:10.1111/joim.13209] [PMID]
20. Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, Tan W. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1843-4. [DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.3786] [PMID] [PMCID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc