Articles In Press                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


1- Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
2- 1. Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran2. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
3- Community Nursing Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
4- 1- Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran2- Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
5- 1- Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran2- Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran , shahram17ir@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (183 Views)
Background and objective: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important pathogens found in ICUs as it is responsible for nosocomial infection with a high mortality rate and a rising level of resistance to most antibiotics. One of the main mechanisms of resistance is the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes such as veb, per, tem, and shv. The current study aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and the frequency of per, tem, veb, and shv genes in A. baumannii strains isolated from Zahedan, Iran.
Methods: The current study was conducted on 150 strains of A. baumannii isolated from different clinical samples from January to September 2018. Antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by the disk diffusion method for 18 antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration for colistin. Later, the bacterial genome was extracted and ESBL genes were detected by PCR.
Results: Out of the 150 studied isolates, 141 were A. baumannii and only nine isolates were A. nosocomialis. A. baumannii strains were strongly resistant to many selected antibiotics such as CAZ (99.3%), CTX (97.9), PTZ (97.2%), SXT (97.2%), IMI (97.2%), and LEV (96.5%); while this value was low for a few antibiotics including MN (69.5%), DXT (52.5%), SAM (21.3), and TN (16.7). The eb, per, tem, and shv genes were detected in 20 (13.3%), 15 (10%), 23 (15.4%), and 11 (7.3%) isolates, respectively.
Conclusion: The isolates were highly resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, imipenem, and levofloxacin; in addition, the frequency of per, veb, tem, and  genes was lower in the current study than those reported in other regions.
Article number: 9
     
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Medical Bacteriology
Received: 2021/12/12 | Accepted: 2022/07/7 | ePublished: 2022/09/9

References
1. Wang X, Chen T, Yu R, Lü X, Zong Z. Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis among clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex in Sichuan, China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76(3):392-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.03.020] [PMID]
2. Molina J, Cisneros JM, Fernández-Cuenca F, Rodríguez-Baño J, Ribera A, Beceiro A, et al. Clinical features of infections and colonization by Acinetobacter genospecies 3. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(12):4623-6. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.01216-10] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Boo TW, Walsh F, Crowley B. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species in an Irish university hospital: predominance of Acinetobacter genomic species 3. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58(2):209-16. [DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.004911-0] [PMID]
4. Meshkat Z, Salimizand H, Amini Y, Khakshoor M, Mansouri D, Farsiani H, et al. Molecular characterization and genetic relatedness of clinically Acinetobacter baumanii isolates conferring increased resistance to the first and second generations of tetracyclines in Iran. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2017;16(1):1-6. [DOI:10.1186/s12941-017-0226-9] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Turton JF, Woodford N, Glover J, Yarde S, Kaufmann ME, Pitt TL. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii by Detection of the blaOXA₋ ₅₁₋ like Carbapenemase Gene Intrinsic to This Species. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(8):2974-6. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.01021-06] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Safari M, Nejad ASM, Bahador A, Jafari R, Alikhani MY. Prevalence of ESBL and MBL encoding genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients of intensive care units (ICU). Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015;22(4):424-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.01.004] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Abdi HA, Hormozi B, Najimi M, Noorzehi N. High prevalence of iron acquisition genes among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections in southeast of Iran. Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;2(4). [DOI:10.17795/ajcmi-30656]
8. Rezai M, Rafiei A, Ahangarkani F, Bagheri-Nesami M, Nikkhah A, Shafahi K. Emergence of extensively drug resistant acinetobacter baumannii-encoding integrons and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia patients. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2017;10(7). [DOI:10.5812/jjm.14377]
9. Salimizand H, Zomorodi AR, Mansury D, Khakshoor M, Azizi O, Khodaparast S, et al. Diversity of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes and 16S rRNA methylases in Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis species in Iran; wide distribution of aadA1 and armA. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;66:195-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2018.09.028] [PMID]
10. Meshkat Z, Amini Y, Sadeghian H, Salimizand H. ISAba1/bla OXA-23-like family is the predominant cause of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in Iran. Infect Genet Evol. 2019;71:60-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2019.03.009] [PMID]
11. Thirapanmethee K. Extended spectrum β-lactamases: critical tools of bacterial resistance. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci. 2012;39(1):1-8.
12. Naas T, Poirel L, Nordmann P. Minor extended‐spectrum β‐lactamases. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14(1):42-52. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01861.x] [PMID]
13. Higgins PG, Lehmann M, Wisplinghoff H, Seifert H. gyrB multiplex PCR to differentiate between Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter genomic species 3. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(12):4592-4. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.01765-10] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Higgins PG, Wisplinghoff H, Krut O, Seifert H. A PCR-based method to differentiate between Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13(12):1199-201. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01819.x] [PMID]
15. Ranaei MA, Shahraki-Zahedan S, Mohagheghi-Fard AH, Salimizand H, Ordoni R, Amini Y. Prevalence of the blaCTX-M and antibiotic resistance pattern among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Gene Reports. 2020;19:100626. [DOI:10.1016/j.genrep.2020.100626]
16. Cockerill FR. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-second informational supplement. Clin Labo Standards Institute. 2010:M100-S22.
17. Yan Z-Q, Shen D-X, Cao J-R, Chen R, Wei X, Liu L-P, et al. Susceptibility patterns and molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains from three military hospitals in China. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;35(3):269-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.10.016] [PMID]
18. Woodford N, Ellington MJ, Coelho JM, Turton JF, Ward ME, Brown S, et al. Multiplex PCR for genes encoding prevalent OXA carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;27(4):351-3. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.01.004] [PMID]
19. Higgins PG, Wisplinghoff H, Krut O, Seifert H. A PCR‐based method to differentiate between Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13(12):1199-201. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01819.x] [PMID]
20. Fallah F, Noori M, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H, Karimi A, Erfanimanesh S, et al. Prevalence of blaNDM, blaPER, blaVEB, blaIMP, and blaVIM genes among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from two hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Scientifica (Cairo). 2014;2014:245162. [DOI:10.1155/2014/245162] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Bali E, Sultan N, Açık L. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of SHV, TEM, CTX-M and extended-spectrum β-lactamase produced by Escherichia coli, Acinobacter baumannii and Klebsiella isolates in a Turkish hospital. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2010;4(8):650-4.
22. Visca P, Seifert H, Towner KJ. Acinetobacter infection-an emerging threat to human health. IUBMB life. 2011;63(12):1048-54. [DOI:10.1002/iub.534] [PMID]
23. Islahi S, Ahmad F, Khare V, Mishra N, Yaqoob S, Shukla P, et al. Prevalence and resistance pattern of Acinetobacter species in hospitalized patients in a tertiary care centre. J evol med dent sci. 2014;3(17):4629-36. [DOI:10.14260/jemds/2014/2487]
24. Tripathi PC, Gajbhiye SR, Agrawal GN. Clinical and antimicrobial profile of Acinetobacter spp: An emerging nosocomial superbug. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3(13). [DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.124642] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Ardebili A, Azimi L, Mohammadi-Barzelighi H, Beheshti M, Talebi M, Jabbari M, et al. Determination of resistance pattern of isolated Acinetobacter baumannii from hospitalized burned patients in Motahari Hospital, Tehran. J Adv Med Biomed Res. 2012;20(83):112-9.
26. Farajnia S, Azhari F, Alikhani MY, Hosseini MK, Peymani A, Sohrabi N. Prevalence of PER and VEB type extended spectrum betalactamases among multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in North-West of Iran. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013;16(6):751-5.
27. Yong D, Shin JH, Kim S, Lim Y, Yum JH, Lee K, et al. High prevalence of PER-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter spp. in Korea. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(5):1749-51. [DOI:10.1128/AAC.47.5.1749-1751.2003] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Sharif M, Mirnejad R, Amirmozafari N. Molecular identification of TEM and SHV extended spectrum βlactamase in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Tehran hospitals. J Gen Microb Immun. 2014:1-9. [DOI:10.5899/2014/jgmi-00020]
29. Hujer KM, Hujer AM, Hulten EA, Bajaksouzian S, Adams JM, Donskey CJ, et al. Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter sp. Isolates from Military and Civilian Patients Treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(12):4114-23. [DOI:10.1128/AAC.00778-06] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Dai N, Li D-z, Chen J-c, Chen Y-s, Geng R, Hu Y-h, et al. Drug-resistant genes carried by Acinetobacter baumanii isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Chin Med J. 2010;123(18):2571-5.
31. Taherikalani M, Sekawi Z, Azizi-Jalilian F, Keshavarz B, Soroush S, Akbari M, et al. Distribution of extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistance genes among nosocomial imipenem resistant A. Baumannii strains harboring BLAoxa-23 carbapenemases isolated from Ilam and Tehran. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2013;27(3):883-9.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc