year 15, Issue 3 (May - Jun 2021)                   Iran J Med Microbiol 2021, 15(3): 361-368 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Karpians G, Piranfar V, Yahyavi I, Sepanian T, Sepanian T, Alizadeh S et al . Leukocytes Parameters, CRP, and Ferritin in Iranian Patients with COVID-19 Infection; A Cross-sectional Study. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2021; 15 (3) :361-368
URL: http://ijmm.ir/article-1-1305-en.html
1- Department of Biochemistry, Medical Laboratory, Tehran, Iran
2- Research and Development Department, Farname Inc, Thornhill, Canada , vahab.p@gmail.com
3- Department of Molecular, Medical laboratory, Tehran, Iran
4- Department of Hematology, Medical Laboratory, Tehran, Iran
5- Department of Phlebotomy, Medical laboratory, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (10104 Views)

Background and Objective: Coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is affecting over 200 countries all over the world. This study was aimed to identify simple and swiftly available laboratory biomarkers to help facilitate effectual triage to categorize suspected COVID-19 patients.
Materials and Methods: According to a standard protocol, we collected clinical, etiological, and laboratory data of 140 patients who underwent diagnostic tests at Medical Laboratory Group, Tehran, Iran, from October 1 to November 28, 2020, based on PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Leukocyte parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and, ferritin levels were measured in patients with positive PCR COVID-19 test.
Results: 140 patients with COVID-19 infection were included in the study. The median age in women was 41.5 (23-60) years and 45.3 (22-68) years in men. Based on RT-PCR result, there were significant differences for neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. Overall, 72.8% of patients had monocyte count more than 11 ×109 /L. The mean neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for women was 2.8 (SD: 1.8) and 2.6 (SD: 1.7) for men. Only in 15 patients (10.7%) with respiratory symptoms, CRP level was more than 5 mg/L.
Conclusion: We found a significant increase in monocyte count. Lymphopenia was also observed. In patients with respiratory symptoms, CRP was significantly higher than the normal reference range.

Full-Text [PDF 608 kb]   (693 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (720 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Medical Virology
Received: 2021/03/18 | Accepted: 2021/05/22 | ePublished: 2021/06/28

References
1. Abdollahi A, Mahmoudi-Aliabadi M, Mehrtash V, Jafarzadeh B, Salehi M. The Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Vulnerability Association with ABO/Rh Blood Types. Iran J Pathol. 2020;15(3):156-60. [DOI:10.30699/ijp.2020.125135.2367]
2. Danesh F, GhaviDel S, Piranfar V. Coronavirus: Discover the Structure of Global Knowledge, Hidden Patterns & Emerging Events. J Adv Med Biomed Res. 2020;28(130):253-64. [DOI:10.30699/jambs.28.130.253]
3. Jalali Nadoushan M, Ahmadi S, Jalali Nadoushan P. Serology Testing for SARS-CoV-2: Benefits and Challenges. Iran J Pathol. 2020;15(3):154-5. [DOI:10.30699/ijp.2020.39841]
4. Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. The Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1033-4. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0]
5. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020;323(13):1239-42. [DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.2648]
6. Mirsadraee S, Pourabdollah Toutkaboni M, Bakhshayeshkaram M, Rezaei Ms, Askari E, Haseli S, et al. Radiological and Laboratory Findings of Patients with COVID-19 Infection at the Time of Admission. Iran J Pathol. 2020;16(2):137-43. [DOI:10.30699/ijp.2020.128909.2415]
7. Madjid M, Safavi-Naeini P, Solomon SD, Vardeny O. Potential Effects of Coronaviruses on the Cardiovascular System: A Review. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(7):831-40. [DOI:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1286]
8. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(4):844-7. [DOI:10.1111/jth.14768]
9. Tkacova R. Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: may adipose tissue play a role? Review of the literature and future perspectives. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:585989. [DOI:10.1155/2010/585989]
10. Costela-Ruiz VJ, Illescas-Montes R, Puerta-Puerta JM, Ruiz C, Melguizo-Rodríguez L. SARS-CoV-2 infection: The role of cytokines in COVID-19 disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2020;54:62-75. [DOI:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.06.001]
11. Hadjadj J, Yatim N, Barnabei L, Corneau A, Boussier J, Smith N, et al. Impaired type I interferon activity and inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients. Science. 2020;369(6504):718-24. [DOI:10.1126/science.abc6027]
12. Kim WK, McGary CM, Holder GE, Filipowicz AR, Kim MM, Beydoun HA, et al. Increased Expression of CD169 on Blood Monocytes and Its Regulation by Virus and CD8 T Cells in Macaque Models of HIV Infection and AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015;31(7):696-706. [DOI:10.1089/aid.2015.0003]
13. Bourgoin P, Lediagon G, Arnoux I, Bernot D, Morange PE, Michelet P, et al. Flow cytometry evaluation of infection-related biomarkers in febrile subjects in the emergency department. Future Microbiol. 2020;15:189-201. [DOI:10.2217/fmb-2019-0256]
14. Sharma V, Bryant C, Montero M, Creegan M, Slike B, Krebs SJ, et al. Monocyte and CD4+ T-cell antiviral and innate responses associated with HIV-1 inflammation and cognitive impairment. Aids. 2020;34(9):1289-301. [DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000002537]
15. Conti P, Younes A. Coronavirus COV-19/SARS-CoV-2 affects women less than men: clinical response to viral infection. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2020;34(2):339-43.
16. Ural BB, Yeung ST, Damani-Yokota P, Devlin JC, de Vries M, Vera-Licona P, et al. Identification of a nerve-associated, lung-resident interstitial macrophage subset with distinct localization and immunoregulatory properties. Sci Immunol. 2020;5(45):eaax8756. [DOI:10.1126/sciimmunol.aax8756]
17. Tuaillon E, Bolloré K, Pisoni A, Debiesse S, Renault C, Marie S, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using commercial assays and seroconversion patterns in hospitalized patients. J Infect. 2020;81(2):e39-e45. [DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.077]
18. Chevrier S, Zurbuchen Y, Cervia C, Adamo S, Raeber ME, de Souza N, et al. A distinct innate immune signature marks progression from mild to severe COVID-19. Cell Rep Med. 2021;2(1):100166. [DOI:10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100166]
19. Michel M, Malergue F, Belkacem IA, Bourgoin P, Morange P-E, Arnoux I, et al. An ultra-sensitive, ultra-fast whole blood monocyte CD169 assay for COVID-19 screening. medRxiv. 2020:2020.10.22.20215749. [DOI:10.1101/2020.10.22.20215749]
20. Michlmayr D, Kim E-Y, Rahman AH, Raghunathan R, Kim-Schulze S, Che Y, et al. Comprehensive Immunoprofiling of Pediatric Zika Reveals Key Role for Monocytes in the Acute Phase and No Effect of Prior Dengue Virus Infection. Cell Rep. 2020;31(4):107569. [DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107569]
21. Raesi A, Saedi Dezaki E, Moosapour H, Saeidifard F, Habibi Z, Rahmani F, et al. Hypocalcemia in COVID-19: A Prognostic Marker for Severe Disease. Iran J Pathol. 2020;16(2):144-53. [DOI:10.30699/ijp.2020.130491.2442]
22. Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ. Role of C-Reactive Protein at Sites of Inflammation and Infection. Front Immunol. 2018;9:754-. [DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2018.00754]
23. Bourgoin P, Soliveres T, Barbaresi A, Loundou A, Belkacem IA, Arnoux I, et al. CD169 and CD64 could help differentiate bacterial from COVID-19 or other viral infections in the Emergency Department. Cytometry A. 2021;99(5):435-45. [DOI:10.1002/cyto.a.24314]
24. Gewurz H, Mold C, Siegel J, Fiedel B. C-reactive protein and the acute phase response. Adv Intern Med. 1982;27:345-72. [DOI:10.1080/21548331.1982.11702332]
25. Ahnach M, Zbiri S, Nejjari S, Ousti F, Elkettani C. C-reactive protein as an early predictor of COVID-19 severity. J Med Biochem. 2020;39(4):500-7. [DOI:10.5937/jomb0-27554]
26. Wang L. C-reactive protein levels in the early stage of COVID-19. Méd Mal Infect. 2020;50(4):332-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.medmal.2020.03.007]
27. Chalmers S, Khawaja A, Wieruszewski PM, Gajic O, Odeyemi Y. Diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary inflammation in critically ill patients: The role of inflammatory biomarkers. World J Critic Care Med. 2019;8(5):59-71. [DOI:10.5492/wjccm.v8.i5.74]
28. Chen W, Zheng KI, Liu S, Yan Z, Xu C, Qiao Z. Plasma CRP level is positively associated with the severity of COVID-19. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2020;19(1):18. [DOI:10.1186/s12941-020-00362-2]
29. Wang G, Wu C, Zhang Q, Wu F, Yu B, Lv J, et al. C-Reactive Protein Level May Predict the Risk of COVID-19 Aggravation. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020;7(5). [DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofaa153]
30. Tan C, Huang Y, Shi F, Tan K, Ma Q, Chen Y, et al. C-reactive protein correlates with computed tomographic findings and predicts severe COVID-19 early. J Med Virol. 2020;92(7):856-62. [DOI:10.1002/jmv.25871]
31. Culebras E, Hernández F. ACE2 is on the X chromosome: could this explain COVID-19 gender differences? Eur Heart J. 2020;41(32):3095-. [DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa521]
32. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;384(8):693-704. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2021436]
33. Gianfrancesco M, Hyrich KL, Al-Adely S, Carmona L, Danila MI, Gossec L, et al. Characteristics associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 in people with rheumatic disease: data from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physician-reported registry. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(7):859-66. [DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217871]
34. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Evaluation of Activation and Inflammatory Activity of Myeloid Cells During Pathogenic Human Coronavirus Infection. Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2099:195-204. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-0716-0211-9_15]
35. Conti P, Gallenga CE, Tetè G, Caraffa A, Ronconi G, Younes A, et al. How to reduce the likelihood of coronavirus-19 (CoV-19 or SARS-CoV-2) infection and lung inflammation mediated by IL-1. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2020;34(2):333-8.
36. Zhang D, Guo R, Lei L, Liu H, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. Frontline Science: COVID-19 infection induces readily detectable morphologic and inflammation-related phenotypic changes in peripheral blood monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2021;109(1):13-22. [DOI:10.1002/JLB.4HI0720-470R]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb | Publisher: Farname Inc