سال 16، شماره 4 - ( مرداد - شهریور 1401 )                   جلد 16 شماره 4 صفحات 281-271 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها


XML English Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Arefinia N, Ghoreshi Z, Alipour A H, Reza Molaei H, Samie M, Sarvari J. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2022; 16 (4) :271-281
URL: http://ijmm.ir/article-1-1575-fa.html
عارفی نیا نصیر، السادات قرشی زهره، علی پور امیرحسین، رضا مولایی حمید، سمیعی محمد، سروری جمال. تظاهرات گوارشی در بیماران مبتلا به ویروس کرونا سارس ۲. مجله میکروب شناسی پزشکی ایران. 1401; 16 (4) :281-271

URL: http://ijmm.ir/article-1-1575-fa.html


1- گروه باکتری شناسی و ویروس شناسی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز، شیراز، ایران
2- گروه بیوشیمی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان، کرمان، ایران
3- گروه باکتری شناسی و ویروس شناسی ، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان، کرمان، ایران
4- گروه باکتری شناسی و ویروس شناسی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز، شیراز، ایران ، sarvarij@sums.ac.ir
چکیده:   (743 مشاهده)

بیماری کووید ۱۹، ناشی از ویروس کرونا سارس ۲، اخیراً به یک مشکل مهم و تأثیرگذار بر سلامت در جهان تبدیل شده است. بیماری کووید ۱۹ عمدتاً با تظاهرات تنفسی آن شناخته می‌شود. اما، مطالعات اخیر افزایش تعداد بیماران مبتلا به علائم گوارشی مانند اسهال، استفراغ، تهوع و ناراحتی شکمی را نشان داده است. ویروس کرونا سارس۲، دستگاه گوارش را از طریق اتصال به گیرنده آنزیم مبدل آنژیوتانسین II که بر روی انتروسیت‌های ایلئوم و کولون بیان می شود، آلوده می کند. معمولاً علائم گوارشی دیرتر از علائم تنفسی ظاهر می شود. حضور ژنوم (RNA) ویروس کرونا سارس ۲ در نمونه های مدفوع برای دوره های طولانی، حتی پس از پاکسازی تنفسی، نگرانی در مورد انتقال از طریق مدفوع افزایش یافته است. در این مطالعه، اثرات ویروس کرونا سارس ۲ را بر روی سیستم گوارشی بررسی شده است.

متن کامل [PDF 1274 kb]   (187 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: مقاله مروری | موضوع مقاله: ویروس شناسی پزشکی
دریافت: 1400/9/15 | پذیرش: 1400/12/17 | انتشار الکترونیک: 1401/3/4

فهرست منابع
1. Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A, Antonelli M, Cabrini L, Castelli A, et al. Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy. JAMA [Internet]. 2020 Apr 28;323(16):1574-81. Available from: [DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.5394] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Lodder W, Maria A, Husman DR. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ' s public news and information . 2020;(January).
3. Molavi Z, Razi S, Mirmotalebisohi SA, Adibi A, Sameni M, Karami F, et al. Identification of FDA approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), drug repurposing approach. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021;138. [DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111544] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Mohammad S, Hashemi A, Thijssen M, Younes S, Alijan H. Human gene polymorphisms and their possible impact on the clinical outcome of SARS ‑ CoV ‑ 2 infection. Arch Virol [Internet]. 2021;166(8):2089-108. Available from: [DOI:10.1007/s00705-021-05070-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 15]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/
6. Center. JHCR. No TitleJohn Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 15]. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
7. Rokkas T. Gastrointestinal involvement in covid-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Gastroenterol. 2020;33(4):355-65. [DOI:10.20524/aog.2020.0506] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Zhou Z, Zhao N, Shu Y, Han S, Chen B, Shu X. Effect of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients With COVID-19. Gastroenterology. 2020;158(8):2294-7. [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.020] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Guan W, Liang W, He J, Zhong N. Cardiovascular comorbidity and its impact on patients with Covid-19. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(6). [DOI:10.1183/13993003.01227-2020] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Simonsick M, Ferrucci L, Resnick SM. Obesity in patients younger than 60 years is a risk factor for Covid-19 hospital admission. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;10.
11. Dai M, Liu D, Liu M, Zhou F, Li G, Chen Z, et al. Patients with cancer appear more vulnerable to SARS-COV-2: a multicenter study during the COVID-19 outbreak. Cancer Discov. 2020;10(6):783-91. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3558017 [DOI:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0422] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Blanco JL, Ambrosioni J, Garcia F, Martínez E, Soriano A, Mallolas J, et al. COVID-19 in patients with HIV: clinical case series. Lancet HIV. 2020;7(5):e314-6. [DOI:10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30111-9]
13. Hoffmann M, Mösbauer K, Hofmann-Winkler H, Kaul A, Kleine-Weber H, Krüger N, et al. Chloroquine does not inhibit infection of human lung cells with SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020;585(7826):588-90. [DOI:10.1038/s41586-020-2575-3] [PMID]
14. Nobel YR, Phipps M, Zucker J, Lebwohl B, Wang TC, Sobieszczyk ME, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms and coronavirus disease 2019: a case-control study from the United States. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(1):373-5. [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.017] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Arima Y, Kutsuna S, Shimada T, Suzuki M, Suzuki T, Kobayashi Y, et al. Ssevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection among returnees to Japan from Wuhan, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(7):1596. [DOI:10.3201/eid2607.200994] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Qureshi H. SHORT COMMUNICATION The digestive system and the COVID-19 S-99. 2020;(January):98-100. [DOI:10.5455/JPMA.19] [PMID]
17. Gu J, Han B, Wang J. COVID-19: gastrointestinal manifestations and potential fecal-oral transmission. Gastroenterology. 2020;158(6):1518-9. [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.054] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Zhang W, Du R-H, Li B, Zheng X-S, Yang X-L, Hu B, et al. Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):386-9. [DOI:10.1080/22221751.2020.1729071] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Cheng JL, Huang C, Zhang GJ, Liu DW, Li P, Lu CY, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Henan. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi= Zhonghua Jiehe he Huxi Zazhi= Chinese J Tuberc Respir Dis. 2020;43:E027-E027.
20. Yi Y, Lagniton PNP, Ye S, Li E, Xu R-H. COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1753. [DOI:10.7150/ijbs.45134] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis MLC, Lely AT, Navis GJ van, van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol A J Pathol Soc Gt Britain Irel. 2004;203(2):631-7. [DOI:10.1002/path.1570] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Liu Y, Li X, Shan H. Evidence for Gastrointestinal Infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology [Internet]. 2020 May 1;158(6):1831-1833.e3. Available from: [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.055] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Strickler JG, Singleton TP, Copenhaver CM, Erice A, Snover DC. Adenovirus in the gastrointestinal tracts of immunosuppressed patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 1992 Apr;97(4):555-8. [DOI:10.1093/ajcp/97.4.555] [PMID]
24. Ciarlet M, Estes MK. Rotavirus and calicivirus infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2001 Jan;17(1):10-6. [DOI:10.1097/00001574-200101000-00003] [PMID]
25. Agholi M, Safaei A, Ramzi M, Hatam GR, Sarvari J. A survey of the frequency of cytomegalovirus-associated diarrhea in immunocompromised patients using a non-invasive method. 2018;10(2):143-50.
26. Cheung KS, Hung IFN, Chan PPY, Lung KC, Tso E, Liu R, et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus load in fecal samples from the Hong Kong cohort and systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2020; [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.065] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Kotfis K, Skonieczna-Żydecka K. COVID-19: gastrointestinal symptoms and potential sources of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther [Internet]. 2020;52(2):171-2. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ait.2020.93867 [DOI:10.5114/ait.2020.93867] [PMID]
28. Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh C-L, Abiona O, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science (80- ) [Internet]. 2020 Mar 13;367(6483):1260 LP - 1263. Available from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/367/6483/1260.abstract [DOI:10.1126/science.abb2507] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Du M, Cai G, Chen F, Christiani DC, Zhang Z, Wang M. Multiomics Evaluation of Gastrointestinal and Other Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jun;158(8):2298-2301.e7. [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.045] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Hashimoto T, Perlot T, Rehman A, Trichereau J, Ishiguro H, Paolino M, et al. ACE2 links amino acid malnutrition to microbial ecology and intestinal inflammation. Nature. 2012;487(7408):477-81. [DOI:10.1038/nature11228] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Ye Q, Wang B, Zhang T, Xu J, Shang S. The mechanism and treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Am J Physiol Liver Physiol [Internet]. 2020 Jul 8;319(2):G245-52. Available from: [DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00148.2020] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. He L, Ding Y, Zhang Q, Che X, He Y, Shen H, et al. Expression of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in SARS-CoV-infected ACE2+ cells in SARS patients: relation to the acute lung injury and pathogenesis of SARS. J Pathol. 2006 Nov;210(3):288-97. [DOI:10.1002/path.2067] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Villapol S. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID-19: impact on the gut microbiome. Transl Res. 2020 Dec;226:57-69. [DOI:10.1016/j.trsl.2020.08.004] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Patel KP, Patel PA, Vunnam RR, Hewlett AT, Jain R, Jing R, et al. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ' s public news and information . J Clin Virol J. 2020;(January).
35. Lauer SA, Grantz KH. Qifang Bi, Forrest K Jones, Qulu Zheng, Hannah R Meredith, Andrew S Azman, Nicholas G Reich, and Justin Lessler. 2020."The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application." Ann Intern Med. 14. [DOI:10.1101/2020.02.02.20020016]
36. Cha MH, Regueiro M, Sandhu DS. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of COVID-19: A comprehensive review. World J Gastroenterol. 2020;26(19):2323-32. [DOI:10.3748/wjg.v26.i19.2323] [PMID] [PMCID]
37. Triki M, Charfi S, Bouzidi L, Makni S, Kallel R, Boudawara ETT. Pathological Features of the Novel Human Coronavirus Disease ( Covid-19 ) : a Review Aspects Anatomo-Pathologiques De L ' Infection Par Le Nouveau Coronavirus ( Covid-19 ) : Revue De La Litterature.
38. Hikmet F, Méar L, Edvinsson Å, Micke P, Uhlén M, Lindskog C. The protein expression profile of ACE2 in human tissues. Mol Syst Biol [Internet]. 2020 Jul;16(7):e9610-e9610. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32715618 [DOI:10.15252/msb.20209610] [PMID] [PMCID]
39. Tian Y, Rong L, Nian W, He Y. Review article: gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2020;51(9):843-51. [DOI:10.1111/apt.15731] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020; [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191] [PMID] [PMCID]
41. Redd WD, Zhou JC, Hathorn KE, McCarty TR, Bazarbashi AN, Thompson CC, et al. Prevalence and Characteristics of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients With Ssevere acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection in the United States: A Multicenter Cohort Study. Gastroenterology [Internet]. 2020;159(2):765-767.e2. Available from: [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.045] [PMID] [PMCID]
42. Lee SW, Ha EK, Yeniova AÖ, Moon SY, Kim SY, Koh HY, et al. Severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 associated with proton pump inhibitors: a nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching. Gut. 2020;gutjnl-2020-322248. [DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322248] [PMID]
43. Liu M, He P, Liu HG, Wang XJ, Li FJ, Chen S, et al. [Clinical characteristics of 30 medical workers infected with new coronavirus pneumonia]. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese J Tuberc Respir Dis. 2020 Feb;43(0):E016.
44. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5]
45. Cholankeril G, Podboy A, Aivaliotis VI, Tarlow B, Pham EA, Spencer SP, et al. High Prevalence of Concurrent Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Patients With Ssevere acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: Early Experience From California. Gastroenterology. 2020 Aug;159(2):775-7. [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.008] [PMID] [PMCID]
46. Lee N, Hui D, Wu A, Chan P, Cameron P, Joynt GM, et al. A major outbreak of ssevere acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1986-94. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa030685] [PMID]
47. Leung WK, To K, Chan PKS, Chan HLY, Wu AKL, Lee N, et al. Enteric involvement of ssevere acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection. Gastroenterology. 2003;125(4):1011-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(03)01215-0 [DOI:10.1016/j.gastro.2003.08.001]
48. Hung IFN, Cheng VCC, Wu AKL, Tang BSF, Chan KH, Chu CM, et al. Viral loads in clinical specimens and SARS manifestations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(9):1550. [DOI:10.3201/eid1009.040058] [PMID] [PMCID]
49. Ling Y, Xu S-B, Lin Y-X, Tian D, Zhu Z-Q, Dai F-H, et al. Persistence and clearance of viral RNA in 2019 novel coronavirus disease rehabilitation patients. Chin Med J (Engl). 2020; [DOI:10.1097/CM9.0000000000000774] [PMID] [PMCID]
50. Tang A, Tong Z, Wang H, Dai Y, Li K, Liu J, et al. Early release-Detection of novel coronavirus By RT-PCR in stool specimen from asymptomatic child, China. 2020; [DOI:10.3201/eid2606.20.0301]
51. Zou L, Ruan F, Huang M, Liang L, Huang H, Hong Z, et al. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(12):1177-9. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMc2001737] [PMID] [PMCID]
52. Peiris JSM, Chu C-M, Cheng VC-C, Chan KS, Hung IFN, Poon LLM, et al. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet. 2003;361(9371):1767-72. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13412-5]
53. Chan KH, Poon LLLM, Cheng VCC, Guan Y, Hung IFN, Kong J, et al. Detection of SARS coronavirus in patients with suspected SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(2):294. [DOI:10.3201/eid1002.030610] [PMID] [PMCID]
54. Xiao YQ, Liu Y, Zheng SL, Yang Y, Fan S, Yang C, et al. Relationship between hypertension and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents. Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi= Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi. 2016;37(9):1223-7.
55. Sarvari J, Mojtahedi Z, Kuramitsu Y, Fattahi MR. Comparative Proteomics of Sera From HCC Patients With Different Origins. 2014;14(1):1-6. [DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.13103] [PMID] [PMCID]
56. David S, Hamilton JP. Drug-induced Liver Injury. US Gastroenterol Hepatol Rev [Internet]. 2010 Jan 1;6:73-80. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21874146
57. Weber J, Gunn H, Yang J, Parkinson D, Topalian S, Schwartzentruber D, et al. A Phase I Trial of Intravenous Interleukin-6 in Patients with Advanced Cancer. J Immunother [Internet]. 1994;15(4). Available from: https://journals.lww.com/immunotherapy-journal/Fulltext/1994/05000/A_Phase_I_Trial_of_Intravenous_Interleukin_6_in.8.aspx [DOI:10.1097/00002371-199405000-00008] [PMID]
58. Banks RE, Forbes MA, Patel PM, Storr M, Hallam S, Clarke D, et al. SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT GLYCOSYLATED INTERLEUKIN 6 IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER: PHARMACOKINETICS, PHARMACODYNAMICS AND IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS. Cytokine [Internet]. 2000;12(4):388-96. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043466699905562 [DOI:10.1006/cyto.1999.0556] [PMID]
59. Gauldie J, Richards C, Harnish D, Lansdorp P, Baumann H. Interferon beta 2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci [Internet]. 1987 Oct 1;84(20):7251 LP - 7255. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/84/20/7251.abstract [DOI:10.1073/pnas.84.20.7251] [PMID] [PMCID]
60. Effenberger M, Grander C, Grabherr F, Griesmacher A, Ploner T, Hartig F, et al. Systemic inflammation as fuel for acute liver injury in COVID-19. Dig Liver Dis [Internet]. 2021 Feb 1;53(2):158-65. Available from: [DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2020.08.004] [PMID] [PMCID]
61. Fan Z, Chen L, Li J, Tian C, Zhang Y, Huang S, et al. Clinical Features of COVID-19-Related Liver Damage. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Jan 1;2020.02.26.20026971. Available from: http://medrxiv.org/content/early/2020/02/28/2020.02.26.20026971.abstract
62. Zhang C, Shi L, Wang F-S. Liver injury in COVID-19: management and challenges. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol [Internet]. 2020 May 1;5(5):428-30. Available from: [DOI:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30057-1]
63. Guo Y-R, Cao Q-D, Hong Z-S, Tan Y-Y, Chen S-D, Jin H-J, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - an update on the status. Mil Med Res. 2020 Mar;7(1):11. [DOI:10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0] [PMID] [PMCID]
64. Wong SH, Lui RNS, Sung JJY. Covid-19 and the digestive system. J Gastroenterol Hepatol [Internet]. 2020 May 1;35(5):744-8. Available from: [DOI:10.1111/jgh.15047] [PMID]
65. Chai X, Hu L, Zhang Y, Han W, Lu Z, Ke A, et al. Specific ACE2 Expression in Cholangiocytes May Cause Liver Damage After 2019-nCoV Infection. bioRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Jan 1;2020.02.03.931766. Available from: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2020/02/04/2020.02.03.931766.abstract
66. Yao XH, Li TY, He ZC, Ping YF, Liu HW, Yu SC, et al. [A pathological report of three COVID-19 cases by minimal invasive autopsies]. Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese J Pathol. 2020 May;49(5):411-7.
67. Zhang Y, Zheng L, Liu L, Zhao M, Xiao J, Zhao Q. Liver impairment in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective analysis of 115 cases from a single centre in Wuhan city, China. Liver Int Off J Int Assoc Study Liver. 2020 Sep;40(9):2095-103. [DOI:10.1111/liv.14455] [PMID]
68. Bangash MN, Patel J, Parekh D. COVID-19 and the liver: little cause for concern. Vol. 5, The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology. 2020. p. 529-30. [DOI:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30084-4]
69. Wander P, Epstein M, Bernstein D. COVID-19 Presenting as Acute Hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020 Jun;115(6):941-2. [DOI:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000660] [PMID] [PMCID]
70. Chornenkyy Y, Mejia-Bautista M, Brucal M, Blanke T, Dittmann D, Yeldandi A, et al. Liver Pathology and SARS-CoV-2 Detection in Formalin-Fixed Tissue of Patients with COVID-19. Am J Clin Pathol. 2021;155(6):802-14. [DOI:10.1093/ajcp/aqab009] [PMID] [PMCID]
71. Mao R, Liang J, Shen J, Ghosh S, Zhu L-R, Yang H, et al. Implications of COVID-19 for patients with pre-existing digestive diseases. lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 May;5(5):425-7. [DOI:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30076-5]
72. Indahningrum R putri. Covariance structure analysis of health-related indicators in the elderly at home with a focus on subjective health. 2020;2507(1):1-9.
73. Pan L, Mu M, Yang P, Sun Y, Wang R, Yan J, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020;115. [DOI:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000620] [PMID] [PMCID]
74. Xu L, Su K-D, Wei X-C, Zhang J, Li H-R. Chemical Constituents of Kadsura coccinea. Chem Nat Compd [Internet]. 2018;54(2):242-4. Available from: [DOI:10.1007/s10600-018-2313-3]
75. Xu L, Ying S, Hu J, Wang Y, Yang M, Ge T, et al. Pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis: risk factors associated with mortality and predictive value of prognostic models. Respir Res [Internet]. 2018 Dec 4;19(1):242. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30514312 [DOI:10.1186/s12931-018-0934-5] [PMID] [PMCID]
76. Albillos A, Lario M, Álvarez-Mon M. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction: distinctive features and clinical relevance. J Hepatol. 2014 Dec;61(6):1385-96. [DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.08.010] [PMID]
77. Yang L, Han Y, Nilsson-Payant BE, Gupta V, Wang P, Duan X, et al. A Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-based Platform to Study SARS-CoV-2 Tropism and Model Virus Infection in Human Cells and Organoids. Cell Stem Cell [Internet]. 2020 Jul 2;27(1):125-136.e7. Available from: [DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.015] [PMID] [PMCID]
78. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet [Internet]. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):507-13. Available from: [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7]
79. Liu F, Long X, Zhang B, Zhang W, Chen X, Zhang Z. ACE2 Expression in Pancreas May Cause Pancreatic Damage After SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol Off Clin Pract J Am Gastroenterol Assoc. 2020 Aug;18(9):2128-2130.e2. [DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2020.04.040] [PMID] [PMCID]
80. Liu F, Long X, Zhang B, Zhang W, Chen X, Zhang Z. ACE2 Expression in Pancreas May Cause Pancreatic Damage After SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;18(9):2128-2130.e2. [DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2020.04.040] [PMID] [PMCID]
81. Wang F, Wang H, Fan J, Zhang Y, Wang H, Zhao Q. Pancreatic Injury Patterns in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 19 Pneumonia. Gastroenterology [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;159(1):367-70. Available from: [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.055] [PMID] [PMCID]
82. Tsibouris P, Ekmektzoglou K, Agorogianni A, Kalantzis C, Theofanopoulou A, Toumbelis K, et al. Gastrointestinal involvement in covid-19 patients: A retrospective study from a greek covid-19 referral hospital. Ann Gastroenterol. 2020;33(5):465-465. [DOI:10.20524/aog.2020.0514] [PMID] [PMCID]
83. BURUK K, OZLU T. New Coronavirus: SARS-COV-2. Mucosa. 2020;(March 2020):1-4. [DOI:10.33204/mucosa.706906]
84. Jiehao C, Jin X, Daojiong L, Zhi Y, Lei X, Zhenghai Q, et al. A Case Series of Children With 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection: Clinical and Epidemiological Features. Clin Infect Dis an Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2020 Sep;71(6):1547-51. [DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa198] [PMID] [PMCID]
85. Ianiro G, Mullish BH, Kelly CR, Sokol H, Kassam Z, Ng SC, et al. Screening of faecal microbiota transplant donors during the COVID-19 outbreak: suggestions for urgent updates from an international expert panel. lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 May;5(5):430-2. [DOI:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30082-0]
86. Zhang J, Wang S, Xue Y. Fecal specimen diagnosis 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. J Med Virol. 2020 Jun;92(6):680-2. [DOI:10.1002/jmv.25742] [PMID] [PMCID]

ارسال نظر درباره این مقاله : نام کاربری یا پست الکترونیک شما:
CAPTCHA

ارسال پیام به نویسنده مسئول


بازنشر اطلاعات
Creative Commons License این مقاله تحت شرایط Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License قابل بازنشر است.

کلیه حقوق این وب سایت متعلق به مجله میکروب شناسی پزشکی ایران می باشد.

طراحی و برنامه نویسی : یکتاوب افزار شرق   ناشر: موسسه فرنام

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb Publishr: Farname Inc.